Safety professionals periodically rely on the use of employee perception surveys to monitor and gauge safety performance in the workplace. When appropriately developed and assessed, these tools can provide invaluable information. Because of the proliferation in use of perception surveys over the years in the safety profession, this article will address the accepted practices of perception survey development, analysis and interpretation.
Use of Surveys in the Workplace by Safety Professionals
Surveys can play a vital role in safety program management. Perception surveys have been used to assess employee perceptions of the safety culture, safety climate, perceptions of the leading indicator effectiveness, incident risk perceptions and measurement of safety management system components. Surveys can also be a useful component of safety management systems. “Continuous improvement process as part of a safety management system relies on data collection” (Herrera, 2018). Surveys can play an integral part in this data collection. They can be used to determine employee needs and services that should be included as part of a wellness program (Rosen & Spaulding, 2009). Employee surveys are also a useful tool as part of a VPP program for obtaining opinion data pertaining to an organization’s safety culture (OSHA, 2008).
A literature review using the Science Direct search engine identified an increase in published research studies utilizing perception surveys from three published articles in 2000 to more than 30 in 2018. Most notably, perception surveys assessing safety culture and safety climate have accounted for a large number of the published research articles during this period.
Learning is a "linear process" for workers. It includes studying and understanding basic systems, normal procedures, and emergency procedures in an operational setting. Therefore, they must be developed for the frontline worker, from the frontline worker's perspective and in their words. Step by step procedures will describe the operation of equipment and the interaction of co-workers in the operational context without leaving the frontline worker any questions or assumptions - it is written with concept of operational-need-to-know. Once completed, they will capture the optimum efficient processes and improve your safety management system.
By borrowing best practices from the airline industry several oil and gas companies have been able to implement a system that prevents and traps human error. My presentation will share with your audience that the foundation to safety and efficiency is the creation of standard work for operators and contractors. Standard work that delivers quality work based on the development of procedures and checklists that work in harmony on the rig floor. We will highlight our success measured by the increased efficiency in fracking by over 300%, a reduction in crane incidents by 50% and the reduction of fatal control of work errors. All through the development of a standardization department which became the center for excellence for the operator and the contractor.
Standardization regarding operational procedures are still a new concept within the industry. Our team has produced tangible results which will be shared with the SPE membership in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of standardization and the increased safety and efficiency from it.
Safety risks of drilling operations are widespread, with potentially significant consequences. Managing these safety risks is key, and intelligent safety risk software can help. This paper introduces dynamic risk modeling and reports on a 2016 proof-of-concept demonstration of the emergent capability.
Turnaround Inspections, or alternatively called Testing and Inspection (T&I) activities are critically important for the integrity of oil and gas facilities, and if not planned and executed properly, can easily lead to catastrophic failures that may possibly result in injuries, fatalities, property damage, and production losses. Measuring the performance of the teams planning and conducting T&Is, and feeding the measurement findings into the existing plans to achieve continuous improvement, is key to the success of these operations posing high risk. This paper provides detailed information on the structure, design criteria, applicability, and benefits of a T&I Performance measurement tool, developed for a hydrocarbon producing department running several gas oil separation, gas compression and utility plants, and continuously performing T&Is of various magnitudes, based on annual equipment inspection schedules. During the design and development stage, several expectations from Operational Excellence Program, Safety Management System, and Corporate Maintenance Council, were incorporated into the tool. The mentioned alignment with various management systems strengthens the measurement coverage, and if used properly, the tool can bridge multiple gaps identified in various programs. The tool provides a single dashboard "T&I KPI" in the form of a composite index, expressed with four (4) major components, which are namely, HSE (Health, Safety and Environment), Cost& Profitability, Reliability, and Effectiveness. These major components are further broken down to planning and executional success factors, obtained from the actual worksite data and planning compliance checklists. Accidents recorded, availability of job safety analysis, confined space, scaffold, and critical lift plans, compliance to corporate requirements prior to execution of the work, work quality, scheduling performance, and budgetary discipline are among the success factors that feed into the performance readiness and execution measurement calculations. The tool can be utilized for T&I activities governed by an annual schedule, a set of critical equipment to be opened up during planned/unplanned shutdowns, or for a multi-component unit with its associated equipment to be tested and inspected under a single scope, such as a gas compressor system. It drives actions as different aspects of the T&I activities are reviewed with a solid scoring methodology that clearly indicates the areas of improvement, which can then be addressed with corrective actions to prevent reoccurrence. Continuous and consistent utilization of the tool can lead to reduction in the accident frequencies, T&I durations, and outages of critical equipment, vessels, and storage tanks, which could possibly impact plant output rates.
ValveWatch can be a powerful tool as part of an operational strategy, as it provides valuable information that can be used to track operational Safety according to IEC 61511/508 (Functional Safety Assessment - SIL – Safety Integrity Level).
Within an operating plant, Functional Safety Management for automated on/off valves, PSVs and manual valves it is required to understand why the valves fail and how it is possible to mitigate these failures. The common factor is that the Faults that one has experienced i.e the valve/actuator has failed to carry out its intended task has caused a loss in production or a reduced the level of safety that the plant has been operating under. – These are expensive lessons and lessons that are repeated often.
The reason why these "lessons" get repeated is because the failures that have been experienced are due to hidden failures that are not possible to discover with traditional instrumentation (I.e limit switch, Partial Stroking, opening/closing time). In the terms of IEC 61508 these faults are categorized as DU Faults (Dangerous Undetected). Often these faults may have been introduced due incorrect maintenance, incorrect operation of the valve/actuator or simply due to wear and tear.
Critical valves have requirements with respect to functional testing and also perhaps through leakage tests. The manual methods in testing are flawed and it is difficult to uncover the DU's and even the DD (Dangerous Detectable Faults). Furthermore, the manual tests are often carried out when there is no pressure present, hence the valve is not tested under realistic conditions.
Considering all expected and unexpected conditions in the a-priori design is acceptable only in special cases. For safe and economical tunnel construction the residual risk needs to be managed by appropriate monitoring and a safety management system. The paper addresses requirements for the geotechnical safety management, as well as state-of the-art monitoring and data evaluation techniques in the context of the observational approach. Experience with safety management systems over the last two decades shows that the risk can be significantly reduced. Case histories are used to demonstrate the potential of proper monitoring and safety management. Keywords: Residual Risk, Tunneling, Monitoring, Safety Management 1. Introduction Uncertainty is unavoidable in underground projects. It originates from the impossibility to completely investigate the geological and geotechnical conditions, even if considerable effort has been made during the preparation phase.
Recent accidents in the oil and gas industry have renewed interest in whether behavioral sciences can provide insights that can be translated into safety interventions. These are typified by the human factors approaches to safety management. Many of these methods are based on an understanding of the behaviors enhancing or limiting human performance, especially in demanding conditions. The best known is crew resource management (CRM), originally developed by the airline industry in the early 1980s after it realized that many of the accidents involved aspects of human behavior rather than just technical failures. The European aviation industry adopted the term "nontechnical skills" for the components of CRM, such as decision making and team work, and the behavioral rating tools that are used to evaluate them.
Seaborne transportation is expanding in accordance with the growth of global economy and the increase of international trades between countries. Recently, as a result of FTAs(Free Trade Agreements) between countries, worldwide cargo volume by ship is expected to keep on rising due to the unification of economic zones. Such an increase in maritime transportation leads to a maritime traffic, and this poses a greater risk of marine accidents in a country’s coastal water. Moreover, such risk factors that are threatening the safety of ships’ navigation such as embarkation of multinational seafarer, piracy, changes in maritime climate by global warming and the like are in occurrence. What’s more, the mounting traffic of yacht and pleasure boats in littoral sea as a result of the increase in maritime leisure activities triggers higher possibilities of marine accidents.
To cope with such changes in maritime environment well, it requires higher safety management abilities & skills from shipping companies, the main subject in charge of the safety matters. However, shipping companies tend to acknowledge safety just as a form of cost without profitability. They particularly have more tendencies to be inactive in managing ship safety and investment during a dull shipping season. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a SMES(Safety Management Evaluation System) which for measurement of safety management level on Korean Shipping Companies and safety management agency companies by empirical data analysis. We have drawn conclusions with an actual proof analysis in the paper. First of all, we established database for evaluating safety management of shipping companies, and also classified shipping companies and their ships for evaluation. Second of all, we selected items for evaluating through questionnaire survey analysis to experts and constructed database. Thirdly, we developed SSMEI(Ship Safety Management Evaluation Index) for an objective evaluation process and calculated weighted value members for each evaluation item. Lastly, we evaluated ship safety management level for Korean shipping companies and safety management agency companies using constructed database and SSMEI.
Center for Offshore Safety: Interaction of Culture, Systems, and Human Performance - The Next Step in Safety Management
Several actions have been implemented to strengthen process safety and improve safety culture involving Petrobras' E&P activities in the Campos Basin - Brazil, such as Process Safety Program, Strategic Project Excellence in HSE, Evaluation of HSE Management, improvement of standards and procedures, creation of HSE Management Manual and E&P Safety Manual, among others. Additionally, at regulatory sphere, new operational safety regulations were established by the Brazilian National Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Agency (ANP; most acronyms derived from respective Portuguese expressions, throughout this paper), such as the Operational Safety Management System, Technical Regulation of the Subsea Systems Operational Safety Management System and Well Integrity Management System. More than 400 million men-hour exposed to risk were employed on Petrobras offshore production facilities operations (owned and contractors, except drilling and logistics) in Campos Basin between 2010 and 2017. This number represents an increase of 43% when compared to previous decade, but the rate of time-lost injuries and recordable incidents decreased about 20% in the same period. All actions allowed a significant reduction in number of casualties in Petrobras offshore facilities operations - 01 casualty in the period. Many other actions were deployed at drilling and logistics operations, also helping to achieve the reduction of accidents goals. Aviation's Safety Case, for instance, involves several actions, from helicopters' companies, passing by airports, up to helidecks and offshore crew. This work presents the main implemented programs and actions, as well as the challenges to comply with the various applicable laws, and the search for the zero accident objective in oil and gas production activities in the Campos Basin.