ATCE is SPE’s annual meeting of members and features groundbreaking papers and special technical events designed to accelerate the application of innovations in every technical discipline. Attendees come from around the world to ATCE to keep up with the latest technologies, industry best practices, and new product launches.
Saikia, Partha Protim (Oil India Limited) | Dutta, Udai Anand (Oil India Limited) | Tumung, Ranjiti (Oil India Limited) | Verma, Sanjay (Oil India Limited) | Ahmed, Akhtar Uddin (Oil India Limited) | Mukerjee, Aditya (S.K.Oilfield)
Radial jet drilling is a widely used environment friendly technique to improve well productivity in tight reservoirs, accelerate production in low-to-medium permeability wells, revamp production in mature wells with formation damage. This technique has helped to enhance production from mature field by bypassing skin, extend the connectivity of the wellbore beyond the near well bore area by drilling laterals using high pressure water jet, and thereby alleviate production restrictions caused by near well bore damage and extend the reach of the wellbore far into the formation. Production, being dependent on reservoir contact of the well bore is therefore increased as average reservoir contact is enhanced by the drain holes. However, selection is equally important as all wells cannot be considered as a suitable candidate and unsuitable candidate selection can show detrimental outcomes.
The technology was applied in a sandstone reservoir where a 22 mm hole was created in the casing at the target depth and then 50 mm OD lateral of length 100m was drilled in the reservoir using high pressure hydraulic jet. The accurate placement and orientation of downhole tool plays a significant role in the success of this technology and is found to be always challenging. Preventing casing milling in undesired azimuths, eliminating chances of lateral overlapping are some challenges that essential to be addressed for gaining optimum advantages. One of the promising technologies to address these challenges was the application of Surface Recording Gyro System. The application of surface recording gyroscopic well bore navigation system provides accurate placement of tool for lateral exit in the down hole and thus enable creation of lateral in the desired direction.
This paper discusses candidate selection and execution carried out in 7 nos. of wells in OIL INDIA LIMITED utilizing surface read out gyro system, which was done for the
As stimulations and well preparation in complicated wells are capital intensive, it was critical to identify the most-suitable candidates with the available dataset before attempting well preparation and further acquisition. This was addressed through a customized workflow to design and creation of the horizontal laterals in desired azimuth utilizing the surface readout gyro system along with radial jet drilling for maximizing oil recovery.
Gupta, M K (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Sukanandan, J N (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Singh, V K (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Pawar, A S (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Deuri, Budhin (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.)
In one of the offshore complex of ONGC, Carryover of liquid have been observed leading to tripping of gas compressors resulting a loss of significant amount of production. It was established that separation capacity of existing separators even at present operating conditions were not sufficient to process present production. Further an increase of 60% of present gas production is envisaged as per long term production profile. Hence, handling the present and envisaged increased production in the existing separators was explored.
To handle the envisaged enhanced production rate and to avoid carryover issue in existing separators, options such as feed nozzles enhancement and installation of inlet device was explored. Changing feed nozzles is a tedious job, require hot job and longer shut down period and requires complete integrity test of separators as recommended by ASME SEC-VIII, pressure vessel guidelines followed by R-stamping. Therefore modifications in separator internal was suggested which will enhance the separation capacity and can accommodate in the present and envisaged increase of future production.
The analysis revealed that even though the diameter and length of the separators are adequate to handle the load, it was established that the inlet nozzle of the separators are not adequate. Hence, considering many factors such as minimum pressure drop, ensuring good gas distribution, suppression of re-entrainment, momentum reduction and erosion velocity ratio of less than one, modifications in separator internal was suggested which will enhance the separation capacity and can accommodate the present and future envisaged increase of production of more than 60%. It was established in the study that this options of installation of inlet device can be done with minimum modifications and require minimum shutdown period. This option has been recommended and is under field implementation. Hence this work will provide a significant help to oil and gas personal to accommodate higher than design feed quantities in existing separators with minimum modifications and minimum shutdown period.
Bhardwaj, Charu (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Ranjan, Vishal (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Jetley, Shailendra Kumar (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Tiwari, Shobhit (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Ghosh, Anirban (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Sharma, Swapnil (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Bohra, Avinash (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kumar, Abhishek (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Beohar, Abhudai (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Sharma, Sidharth (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited)
The Raageshwari Deep Gas (RDG) field, situated within Barmer Basin in the State of Rajasthan, India, was discovered in 2003. The field is a tight gas condensate reservoir, with excellent gas quality of approximately 80% methane, low CO2 and no H2S. Since the permeability (0.01 - 1 md) is low in this reservoir, hydraulic fracturing is required to get substantial recovery from the wells. The field has been under production since 2010. The development of this field has been carried out in three phases and more than 150 fracturing treatments have been pumped in this reservoir till date to achieve sustained economical production. This paper deals with the lessons learnt and changes implemented in choke design through various development phases of the field.
In the initial phase of field development, chokes with a low Flow Coefficient (Cv) were installed to meet the requirement of controlling the wells at low flow rates and high differential pressure. Later as the surface handling capacity increased, the chokes had to be de-bottlenecked, requiring additional Capex for new chokes. To avoid a similar scenario in the future, a comprehensive approach has been followed to envisage Cv requirement, considering well wise production profiles and surface handling capacities throughout the life of field. Since a single trim can't operate over the complete life-cycle of a well, trim interchangeability has been included in the choke design such that low and high Cv trims are interchangeable.
Pre-mature failures of trims were observed in initial phase and a root cause analysis was done to ascertain the reason. Based on the analysis, trim metallurgy has been changed from Tungsten Carbide to ASTM A276 Specific Stainless Steel Grade 440C. Trims with newly selected mettalurgy have been installed in the existing chokes.
The introduction of trim interchangeability has saved MMUSD 0.3 in the future Opex as the requirement of procuring altogether new chokes for late life period of wells is avoided. Initially failures in the trim bodies were observed as early as two months of commissioning but with the change in metallurgy zero failures have been observed with operational life of chokes being higher than four years. This has avoided significant downtime on wells and expenditure on regular trim changeovers.
Although Tungsten Carbide is one of the most common materials used for constructing trims world over, there could be specific cases where-in other metallurgy may add better value. The workflow followed in this paper will help select a suitable metallurgy and can impart a significant value to the industry.
Traditionally, petroleum exploration and development teams have utilized workflows and software which require single instance installation and cater to domain-specific needs. Design results from one domain would require incorporation into applications of other associated domains to deliver team-wide engineering. This is often time consuming, requiring multiple review meetings and extra administrative effort for the drilling engineer.
To add to the complexity, whenever iterations or sensitivity evaluations are needed across the entire plan, there is often no simple platform within which all the required processes can be managed, requiring engineering evaluations to be executed across multiple software. An example is hydraulics which is required for mud design, bottom hole assembly (BHA) and bit design, hole cleaning and borehole stability aspects of drilling. Although all these engineering considerations evaluate the same fluid properties, they typically sit on separate engines and are only integrated by criteria and thresholds in the final plan and not through concurrent engineering design.
This paper presents a new cloud deployed well construction planning solution, that aims to resolve these historical challenges by enabling multiple processes to be connected and executed from a common contextual dataset in a single system. For example, the hydraulics design is coherent across all design tasks which increases planning efficiency and plan quality. The entire solution also integrates across domains, from geology and geomechanics to drilling engineering and service company planning. This coupled with project orchestration, team collaboration and data management provide further productivity gains and cost savings for the entire team.
This paper summarizes the digital well construction planning solution and provides case study examples of how cross domain experts plan concurrently in a single common system. This approach allows a teamwide focus on planning better wells faster in a single engineering solution. Case studies show how the well planning team was able to improve cross-discipline collaboration between engineering and geoscience as well as interactions with service companies. Overall, the well planning time was reduced significantly, and the reliability of the well design was ensured through the engineering validation of each task. The integrated digital well planning solution proved to be a more cost-effective solution for well planning and ensured the high-quality delivery of drilling programs.
Case studies of mill-out operations in the Permian Basin which evaluate chemical programs and processes used. Results show how existing processes and chemicals used or lack thereof, can affect equipment and undo the preventative chemical treatments used during the hydraulic fracturing process.
The study looks at field water testing performed during various mill-out operations and considered workover rig vs coiled tubing, equipment set up, water & chemicals used, and operational challenges. Water analyses were completed on the injection water and returns at various intervals of the mill-out. Effectiveness of chemical treatment was also monitored when biocide was used.
Field case studies of horizontal wells for two operators in the Permian Basin are presented. Wells were milled-out utilizing workover rigs or coiled tubing units. Testing results show the impact of equipment setup and operations process on the water quality and efficiency of the chemicals used. Water fouling was prevalent in all cases, with coiled tubing jobs showing the highest degree of water contamination and chemical inefficiency. Changes in the water treatment program during operations showed significant improvement and sustainable results. Potential corrosion of the work string due to water fouling and water composition were also observed. The effects of changes to chemical dosages were also monitored. This was important because it identified operational improvements that can reduce equipment replacement costs, reduce chemical overuse and help protect wells from fouling due to high bacteria.
These case study provides a comprehensive review of mill-out operations, which provides guidelines for improving chemical efficiency and potential of extending life of the work string.
The six sigma management system is widely known across many different industries and businesses. The methodology originated in the early 1980s under the efforts of several engineers working at Motorola Inc. Together, they sought ways to improve quality, streamline manufacturing processes and reduce product defects. Eventually, “Motorola made six sigma its flagship approach to quality, and Xerox, GE and Kodak followed suit” (Bhargav, 2017). The effort evolved rapidly and eventually incorporated a now well-known concept called lean manufacturing. Together, these systems worked to decrease waste and eliminate all activities that were deemed non-value adding. Why did such quality management systems become so popular? What was the reason for their widespread acceptance?
Consider also the growing popularity of the value-add concept. “Value-added is the extra value [or enhanced value] created over and above the original value of something. It can apply to products, services, companies, management and other areas of business” (CFI, 2019). Endless opportunities exist for businesses and employees to add value in their respective spheres of influence.
Bennis (1990) describes how effective leadership requires the capacity to set clear expectations and define an overall vision. Bennis further suggests that great leaders strive to eliminate wasted time, coining the phrase “leadership is the management of attention.”
Building on these principles, consider the leadership qualities of OSH professional colleagues. What do they do to add value to the organization? Do they streamline processes and eliminate wasted time? If leadership truly is the management of attention, what should OSH professionals be paying attention to?
Following are 10 key characteristics that differentiate value-adding safety professionals from those who do not add value. They represent the opinions of the author and are supported by industry best practices.
Mazzlan, Khairul Akmal (PETRONAS) | Chia, Mabel Pei Chuen (PETRONAS) | Tamin, Muhammad (PETRONAS) | Tugimin, M Azri B A (PETRONAS) | Azlan, Ali Al-Amani (PETRONAS) | Michael, Lester Tugung (Schlumberger) | Sepulveda, Willem (Schlumberger) | Cortez V., Juan L. (Schlumberger) | Muhamed Salim, Muzahidin (Schlumberger) | Kalidas, Sanggeetha (Schlumberger) | Chan, Nathanael Vui Kit (Schlumberger) | Biniwale, Shripad (Schlumberger) | Serbini, Feroney (Schlumberger) | Mohd Arifin, Azahari (Schlumberger) | Tan, Tina Lee Ting (Schlumberger) | Tee, Karen Ying Chiao (Schlumberger)
‘S’ field is a mature oilfield located offshore Sabah, Malaysia. As part of the redevelopment plan, ‘S’ field was the first field selected for an end-to-end asset management Integrated Operations (IO project) where multiple workflows have been implemented for the asset operation optimization through monitoring and surveillance. One of the exclusive workflow that will be further elaborated in this paper is on Candidate Selection and Reservoir Optimization.
Although field optimization mission was ongoing, proper knowledge capture and standardization of such techniques were not adequate due to the limited data management. Lack of decision-support mechanism and most importantly the challenge was of understanding and analysing the asset performance. A key to the success of field and reservoir optimization is defining a tailored approach, for selection of right candidate and collaborative decision for well/field intervention.
With an objective of full field revitalization, the project was focused on integrated, collaborative 3R approach – Reliability, Reusability and Repeatability. Reliability component was based on capturing knowledge from experienced professionals from various domains and blending that with traditionally proven analytical techniques. Reusability was emphasized by the development of consistent and robust analysis workflows ready to use. Repeatability was aiming at standardizing the process of candidate selection and decision making to assist junior engineers.
This paper will discuss further on the recent decommissioning project of fields which has been completed on November 2017. These two platforms had been totally removed and became an artificial reef at Sarawak water in Malaysia. This paper will show the activities and best practices; the team had gone through from early stage until completion of the process based on the decommissioning phases. The decommissioning framework consists of five phases starting from Late Life Planning and Preparation; Regulatory, Compliance and Permitting; Facilities Hook-down and wells make safe; Removal and Remediation and lastly, Post Remediation. In baseline inspection, the underwater inspection had provided some information to the contractor on the scope and revealed some of the uncertainties about the decommissioning project. On an important note, an engineering study is critical to ensure safe operation. After our observation, we noted that actual operation is similar to the engineering's simulation where the team had to follow the engineering accordingly. Reefing engineering crucially needed to be performed to ensure the facilities been placed at the right location and position. During offshore execution removal of facilities, there were challenges we faced such as malfunction of the cutting/dredge equipment which led to a back up plan and innovative solution. We had to utilize other available equipments available onboard (Diamond wire cutter, abrasive waterjet internal cutter, dredger, soil plug removal, airlift, cutting torch etc.). Selection of cutting tools also needed to be considered to minimize the pinch effect of the facilities. Finally, Post decommissioning survey had been carried during the Post Remediation phase to assess the successful of the project. The post-decommissioning/reefing survey had been carried out and the result observed new marine growth and numbers of fishes at the reefed platform. It had been concluded that this decommissioning reefing project was successful. This paper should be an interest to those who will be exploring abandonment and decommissioning project which includes reefing as one of the decommissioning options. This paper will also show on decommissioning process through Engineering, Preparation, Removal and Disposal (EPRD) approach contract. The novelty in this paper is on the assurance that had been made by Company via baseline and post reefing survey to ensure environment aspect had been considered.