Production of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical from production units is becoming very competitive every day. As products are sold in open market, production cost drives an organization's profitability. To keep a plant available for production as much as possible, Asset Performance Management (APM) or Asset Integrity Management (AIM)is the key. Risk based inspection (RBI) is a decision making tool that deals with integrity management of static equipment and piping through focus on prioritizing inspection based on the risk.
Review of published guidelines for RBI such as API RP 580/581, ASME PCC3, DNV-RP-G101, EN 16991 etc., suggests that they provide either oversimplified or complex explanations which makes it difficult for beginners to grasp all the aspects that are critical for a successful RBI project. Therefore, this paper is aimed to provide and discuss the essential elements for effective RBI implementation project in a simplified way. RBI project can be divided into four major phases i.e project initiation and pre-requisites, workshops & trainings, RBI analysis phase and post RBI actions. Each of these stages is discussed with details in this paper.
An overview of successful RBI program used within the industry and from the ADNOC LNG RBI implementation experience, is provided with details. Project management approach for RBI program implementation is conveyed by dividing project into different phases and highlighting the inputs/outputs and activities for each phase. Objectives, time and resources such as data and personnel required, software features that are essential, project planning and monitoring are provided.
RBI program implemented efficiently in accordance with suggested plan, results in an overall optimization of inspection for static equipment/piping while maintaining their integrity as part of a broader APM or AIM strategy.
Bottom hole pressures are valuable source of information for reservoir surveillance and management and are the heart of reservoir engineering. Real – time pressure measurements record pressure data at 5 second interval resulting in enormous accumulation of data. The size and volume of the accumulated data limit the capability of existing analysis software to load and interpret data. This paper presents an improved methodology for data quality checking and data optimization in determining reservoir pressure depletion via Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Decision Tree Model.
Dataset was gathered from a representative reservoir from Malay Basin. The ARIMA algorithm presented was designed for quick and efficient data quality checking. The Decision Tree Model in other hand was utilized to select maximum buildup pressure for reservoir depletion point via well status parameters. The maximum pressures were selected from buildup up data when the decision tree conditions were met. Versus classical methods, the algorithm has obtained around 90% similarity. The resulting data were then can fully optimized for reserve reporting and forecasting study i.e. analysis and numerical simulation.
The paper also reports on the advantages in the application of ARIMA – Decision Tree Algorithm in pressure surveillance revealing few key advantages namely minimize the need of well intervention and optimized workflow for reservoir engineer to view, utilize, and detect reservoir depletion data. ARIMA – Decision Tree Algorithm is targeted to be installed and integrated in field historian for better overall data analysis and visualization. Results produced from the ARIMA – Decision Tree Algorithm which consist of reservoir pressure depletion data will then improve more advance analysis such as simulation and forecasting in terms of overall speed and accuracy.
As a conclusion, this paper presents the importance and application of incorporating Big Data Analytics Algorithm in reservoir management and reporting. Future work, deliverability calculations can be incorporated in the model to identify and rectify any abnormal reservoir behavior.
A number of major process industry accidents have involved SIMOPS. Company conducted construction (modifications) activities inside its own plant during the period from November 2017 to May 2018. The Group Risk Acceptability Criteria Guidelines have been defined by Company for the purpose of providing Senior Management with quantitative information about the risk profile during SIMOPS activities and to help them in taking informed decision about the execution strategy to ensure safe operations.
A DNV-GL Phast based model of the plant has been used to assess the risk level. Using Group Risk guidelines for On-site personnel based on the FN (Frequency – Number of Fatalities) Curve, Company evaluated and compared several SIMOPS options prior to the actual works to identify the optimal manning level and schedule to ensure the overall Group Risk laid in the ALARP region.
The quantitative risk assessment served as a tool to derive the optimal manning levels and shutdown schedule during the SIMOPS activities. The manning levels were controlled through additional administrative measures to ensure its implementation.
Moreover, the overall SIMOPS Risk (FN Curve) for the current activity was compared with the risk undertaken during similar previous activities conducted in 2015 and 2016. After the successful completion of the activities, the Risk Assessment was updated to take into consideration the actual manning and schedule inputs for the Pre-Shutdown and Partial Shutdown phases. The actual overall Group Risk (including Pre and Partial Shutdown) was within the Company Group Risk Acceptability Criteria.
Additionally, valuable Lessons Learned were identified such as purging (with inert gas), rather than just the depressurization of the equipment in the units during Shutdown, can contribute to a significant risk reduction.
This paper presents a novel approach to evaluate SIMOPS risk on personnel using a Group Risk criteria based on FN Curve. This provides an additional re-assurance to stakeholders involved in the activity to take informed decisions based on a quantitative risk analysis rather than a qualitative assessment.
The scope of this paper is to present a new and innovative technology to enhance the performance of subsea installation and construction activities while reducing the risk for both human life and the environment. The conventional method of conducting subsea installation in diver-accessible areas is usually by the use of saturation diving systems and teams. This poses a significant operational risk on the lives of the team, the environment, and the subsea assets in the area, along with also having operational limitations. This paper presents a technology that reduces this risk and enhances subsea installation activities altogether.
The technology presented is an intelligent manipulator that can be installed on Remotely-Operated Vehicles (ROVs). The system relies on artificial intelligence, the geometry of machine making, power, and accuracy to enhance subsea installation operations. Through the use of 3D point cloud technology, the system is able to give accurate views and measurements of the surrounding environment, allowing for accurate path determination and decision making.
The result of the technology is that the ROV manipulator is able to mimic human divers’ mental and physical abilities in different modes of action during subsea installation operations, especially in hazardous environments. This enables such operations to be performed faster and in a more cost-effective manner. Moreover, a key result of the use of this technology is eliminating the huge risk suffered by human divers in hazardous saturation diving environment.
With the use of this technology, the industry would be able to utilize ROVs to conduct diver-less subsea installation activities in a safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective manner than by using saturation diving systems and teams.
Eni has more than 40 years' experience on developing and managing sour hydrocarbons Projects. That has allowed to build up in Eni a specific knowhow, which is continuously improving and updating through operational activities on assets with an high concentration of H2S in the process fluids such as Karachaganak and Kashagan in Kazakhstan, COVA in Southern Italy and the more recent Zohr facilities in Egypt.
The Eni's acquired knowledge in running sour hydrocarbon assets, both offshore and onshore, has been founded on a robust risk based approach. Since the project start, risk assessments such as blowout study, Quantitative Risk Assessment, Emergency Escape Rescue Analysis, etc. results are considered the pillars for the proper design, construction, commissioning, start-up and operations phases. Specifically, SIMOPS/CONOPS methodologies and procedures and their applications in sour operational contexts are defined for managing sour hydrocarbons assets and activities.
The paper discusses extending the use of the Frequency Adjusted Measured Effectiveness (FAME) methodology (SPE-190633) to the operational, organisational and cultural levels in bowties. The method enables risk management functions to steer senior management toward effective management actions at the middle management level, allows greater understanding of the cultural and regulatory factors impacting those management activities, and provides a clearer understanding of where the most important impact can be achieved through organisational change.
This paper develops Bowtie concepts by applying FAME (SPE-190633) to the bowtie ‘levels analysis’ (SPE 127180). The ‘levels analysis’ defines the barriers at the levels of a bowtie as the workplace (Level 1, L1), organisational (Level 2, L2), and cultural and regulatory factors (Level 3, L3). FAME quantifies the relative importance of barriers within bowtie systems as a whole. The paper uses these concepts to provide simple ways of providing middle and senior managers with understanding about how well their risks are being managed.
The disconnect between what management does and what actually
This allows the conversation to change from "why wasn't he wearing his gloves?" to "how did we not have a start-up audit on this contract?" The emphasis is moved from immediate causes that are hard to control to factors that are within the span of control of middle and senior managers. This paper introduces a method for clearly communicating to middle and senior management what their own critical management functions are, which are most important and what they can and should be held accountable for.
Poreddiwar, Nitesh (National Petroleum Construction Company, UAE) | Singh, Bhupinder (National Petroleum Construction Company, UAE) | Singh, Harendra (National Petroleum Construction Company, UAE) | Kamal, Faris Ragheb (National Petroleum Construction Company, UAE) | Takieddine, Oussama (National Petroleum Construction Company, UAE)
In Oil & Gas facilities, emergency depressurization is a prime mitigation to reduce risk to personnel/assets during fire and avoids catastrophic failure. The conventional approach considers standard criteria for vessels/pipes for establishing depressurization rates without assessing dynamic stress changes due to actual material properties/thicknesses. The paper discusses latest API approach of Fire Response Analysis (FRA), which evaluates rupture possibility, consequences and mitigation to ensure the integrity of process/flare system and establishes more accurate depressurization rates.
The conventional approach considers depressurization to 50%/100 psig in 15 minutes for material thicknesses one inch & above and faster depressurization for thicknesses below one inch. As standard engineering practice, depressurization of facilities in 15 minutes is normally followed irrespective of material thickness. Latest API approach determines depressurization rate based on FRA, which accounts transient thermo-physical properties along with heat transfer and consider reduction in material strength when exposed to fire. FRA is an exhaustive study requiring detailed inputs such as type of fire, fire duration, heat flux, rupture acceptance criteria, in addition to inputs considered in conventional approach.
Emergency depressurization rate in FRA Study is established based on adequacy of ultimate material tensile strength against the stresses developed under fire scenario. In house case studies compare the results of emergency depressurization rates based on FRA Study and conventional approach for various isolatable system of process complex. Emergency depressurization rates in FRA Study are found to be dependent on material thickness as well as tensile strength and usually results in lower or higher than 15 minutes to ensure vessel/pipe survivability.
FRA Study follows a multi-discipline approach to conclude depressurization rates based on various parameters such as acceptability of facility rupture consequences, search/rescue time of field personnel. If rupture criterion is not acceptable from Safety Risk Analysis, FRA study re-establishes the emergency depressurization rates by accelerating the depressurization rates and/or increasing vessel/pipe thickness and/or providing Passive Fire Protection (PFP).
FRA study results are utilized to finalize emergency depressurization / blowdown line sizes including Restriction Orifice (RO) size, flare headers sizes and flare system design capacity. RO sizes per FRA Study are utilized to finalize the non-fire case blowdown and minimum metal design temperature of facilities.
NPCC has executed many Oil & Gas projects involving flare system. This paper discusses the challenges and "Lessons Learned" by EPC Contractor in applying new FRA approach to ensure integrity of safety critical systems through case studies from recent project. The paper also highlights the benefits of FRA study including effective utilization of existing flare spare capacity and proposes way forward to assist Operators in decision making process for up-gradation of existing facilities.
Middle East offshore platforms installations started in the early 60's and continue today. Managing asset integrity and demonstrating compliance is increasingly challenging due to frequent brownfield modifications, increased safety factors with the introduction of international standards, changes in metocean data and age deterioration. From work with North Sea, Gulf Region and Asia Pacific operators, an approach was developed to manage ageing assets using real-time structural risk assessments and operational procedures that ensures consistent risk levels of life safety and environmental for all assets and is applicable to all regions.
Utilising the improved accuracy of modern weather forecasts, in combination with structural reliability, a methodology has been developed to determine the forecasted risk level for any critical element. This is updated live, with each new weather forecast, to provide proactive notifications and alerts so operators have more up to date knowledge to make decisions on their assets. A live web-based system can be utilised to display this information.
The approach splits the three risks of life safety, environmental and structural damage into separate requirements and calculates the probability of failure, which will lead to each of the three consequences, for the critical component or the overall structure. The risk is evaluated and compared with the industry standard and the operators own acceptance criteria to determine if operational procedures need to be enacted to reduce the consequence. It has been found that the acceptable risk levels for the ‘in a forecasted storm’ risk are governing over the traditional design ‘annual’ risk levels.
If at any point in time the probability of a wave height approaching the field exceeds the maximum allowable for a structure, the system issues timely alerts and warnings to the relevant stakeholder for their actions. The operator then has the option of de-manning or shutting down operations to maintain the risk levels for life safety and environmental at ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) levels. The system also provides information for post-storm structural damage likelihood.
A combination of online monitoring, inspection and/or asset loading history, which can be incorporated using Bayesian updating methods, and advanced assessment have been used to reduce the occurrence of enacting operational procedures for structures that are non-code compliant to greater than every 10 years while also reducing the annual risks.
An additional advanced feature can be utilised by connecting installed accelerometers to the structure for continuous live streaming of the structural response which can issue alerts if any damage is suspected.
Company conducted a Fatigue Risk Assessment Study to estimate the fatigue levels of approximately 9000 shifts and the risk of incidents occurring due to operator fatigue. The findings provided an insight into the likelihood of fatigue and risk of errors / incidents occurring for approximately 9000 shifts of control panel operators working on a 4 4, 12-hour, day and night shift pattern. The results presented in this paper are limited to the assessment conducted for day shifts in order to demonstrate the methodology. The study compared different shift patterns in order to identify shifts with higher fatigue levels and identify control measures to reduce operators' fatigue levels and risk of incidents occurring to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). Lowest fatigue and risk levels were identified for the current 4 4 shifts in comparison to 7 7 and 28 28 shift cycles followed by other Companies. In order, to lower the risk to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), additional control measures such as training, campaigns, ergonomic assessments, KPIs such as tracking incidents by fatigue levels, etc. are being rolled-out for implementation. This is a novel approach on the combination of a qualitative (IOGP) and quantitative (UK HSE) fatigue risk assessment methodology that has widespread applicability, prospectively in terms of shift design and prevention of incidents caused by fatigue induced impairments and retrospectively for incident investigations. This Fatigue Risk Assessment Study fosters proactive occupational health management by promoting health of employees and preventing / reducing fatigue and thus plays a vital role in the prevention of sickness absenteeism and illnesses associated with chronic fatigue.
To err is human; to prevent by design is divine. For occupational serious injuries and fatalities (SIF) to be effectively and consistently reduced, safety must be designed into workplace facilities, systems and methods. Risk avoidance and elimination, the most effective risk treatment options, are generally only possible by design and redesign efforts.
A clear link exists between workplace fatalities and unsafe or error-prone designs. Studies in the construction industry indicate that more than 40% of fatalities are connected to the design aspect (Behm, 2005). In Australia, safety in design is an action area of the Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy. A Safe Work Australia (2014) study examined work-related fatalities that occurred from 2006 to 2011 and involved machinery, plant and powered tools. Its purpose was to assess the extent to which unsafe design contributed to the fatalities. Of these fatalities, 12% were identified to have been caused by unsafe design or design-related factors, while 24% were possibly caused by design-related factors.