KIPIC engineering team within Petrochemical project (PRIZe) aims to improve the project design while optimizing cost. PRIZe is executing this objective by following the updated design specifications, latest approved technologies, and enhancing communications with parallel and previous projects to achieve the best practice and avoid any repetitive flaws.
The first approach is by following the updated standards. PRIZe is using Shell DEP standards V41. Although parallel projects within the company are using an older version of Shell DEP standards, PRIZe found that it is best to follow the latest standards while reviewing and providing Project Variations (PV). PRIZe team are also familiarized and aware of the standards for the adjacent projects to assure compatibility of the overall KIPIC design approach.
The second approach is by enhancing the communications with parallel projects within KIPIC and other Kuwait oil companies. PRIZe had conducted meetings, exchanged emails, and established committees to discuss and share any announcements related to design changes. These announcements were beneficial in enhancing the design and optimizing cost. Moreover, KIPIC initiated a "lesson learnt" practice that is circulated between all departments and other Kuwait oil companies to gather any issue that would serve in enhancing the design.
Last approach is by staying alert to latest approved technologies in the market that are related to the project. Technology adds value in improving the design and optimizing cost. Therefore, scouting for latest approved technologies in the field can add significant value to the project. PRIZe has taken this initiative by conducting meetings with vendors for several equipment and packages during the FEED stage. This allowed PRIZe to make prior adjustment to the FEED design to meet these technologies.
DEP 184.108.40.206 for Compressor selection, testing, and installation V41 removed complete unit testing. Usually each test costs around 200,000$.
Project variation was developed reference to the adjacent project. Painting was removed for stainless steel electrical and non-pressurized items as it is no more required. A negative change order of around 2,000,000 $ was obtained.
Steppless Capacity Control technology system was obtained for reciprocating compressors. The payback for a sample compressor was 0.69 years.
This paper is for all design engineers that works in the project that seek to optimize cost while improving the design.
This paper introduces BPs Operational Readiness and Start Up and Assurance Methodology which is applied across the portfolio of capital projects in BP which are delivered around the world on an ongoing basis. The paper then shares how through a Technical Services Agreement (TSA) that BP was awarded by Kuwait Integrated Petroleum Industries Company (KIPIC) in 2018, how BP has worked with KIPIC to deliver value through collaboration and capability by sharing the practice with KIPIC on the Al-Zour Refinery project and then working with KIPIC to help them incorporate and adapt key elements of the programme to fit and enhance the KIPIC readiness program. The Operational Readiness and Start Up Assurance Practice, sometimes referred to as an Operational Readiness Plan (ORP) has been developed over an extended period, combining the learnings and experiences from major projects successfully completed, commissioned and put into commercial operation, safely and reliably. Implementation of the practice is mandatory for major projects and the BP Global Projects Organisation (GPO) and Global Operating Organisation (GOO) follow the requirements of the practice from the very early commencement of a capital investment, and before the investment decision to execute the project is formally taken. The following pages explain at high level the intent of the ORP and how it is applied to a major project investment in BP and following this, how through working collaboratively with KIPIC, BP was able to support KIPIC in its development of Commissioning and Startup Readiness for the Al-Zour Refinery facilities, which are expected to begin commissioning in 2020. The CSU Program was formally launched by KIPIC in July 2019 and is now an integral part of KIPICs final preparations before commencement of Commissioning and Startup. In due course it is anticipated that the a custom and specific CSU Program will also be adapted for the Al-Zour Liquified Natural Gas Import (LNGI) facility, which is due to enter service after performance testing in 2020. Through working together in a collaborative and one team approach, KIPIC and BP have demonstrated how sharing of best practices can help respective organisations learn and grow together and help fulfil the ambition that KIPIC has for building a better future.
In 2016, Malaysia Petroleum Management (MPM), the regulatory body of PETRONAS launched a 3 year dedicated strategy to intensify the idle wells restoration and production enhancement activities in order to maximize profitability through efficiency and success rate improvement. The basis of this strategy is the risk-sharing integrated operations in which the industry embraced it in all major well intervention activities. As the drilling activities dropped drastically over the past few years, it was crucial that the well intervention activities are carried out with high efficiency and success rate to restore the production.
The strategy went through various development changes throughout the 3 year journey. As the well intervention scope covers a wide range of activities, the framework of this integrated risk sharing mechanism provided the flexibility that is required for the execution of the various scopes and meet specific value targets either profitability from production gain or cost saving from decommissioning and infill drilling. Each of the project carried unique Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as the guiding principles to drive the efficiency improvement that was required. A unique process called Total Wells Management (TWM) was implemented as the overlaying guide to further improve the uncertainty of subsurface challenges, operation optimization and commercial risk exposure.
This paper outlines the overall post mortem analysis of the 22 projects that were executed under this integrated operations strategy between MPM, ten operators and five main service companies. This strategy, known to the industry as the Integrated Idle Wells Restoration (IIWR) program, has become the new norm on how well intervention and subsurface assessments are executed to yield the best results especially in late life fields. The risk sharing integrated framework have proven to be a win-win scenario for all involved parties. The scope was also extended to cover non production adding activities such as wells decommissioning, well startups and pre drilling zonal isolation. IIWR have also opened up the opportunities for many ‘first in Malaysia’ projects such as the first subsea hydraulic intervention, first subsea decommissioning and also the reinstatement of technologies such as coiled tubing catenary. The biggest impact from this 3 years strategy implementation can be seen from the Unit Enhancement Cost (UEC) improvement where the average UEC was reduced from 14 to 17 USD per barrel of oil to about 4 to 7 USD barrel of oil.
Although there were major challenges, the overall results have been very encouraging. This framework is also being replicated for drilling and completion activities as well. Specific to well intervention, this IIWR framework is currently being put through an enhancement process to further expand the landscape of well intervention activities without compromising safety, operational efficiency and business profitability.
Most major projects fail(Merrow, 2011). Failure results from a lack of control Failures occur most often and most ruinously on our largest and most important projects. But these are the projects that are subjected to the most rigorous management oversight and control. There appears to be a paradox here: Those projects that we control the most rigorously appear to be the most out-of-control. We argue that this paradox is caused by control models rooted in the reductionist/Newtonian worldview that is not suitable for understanding and controlling today's complex projects. We argue that management control models can be improved by making them more like the control models extant in naturally occurring complex systems which do not experience any paradox of control.
Digital Transformation in oil and gas is bringing a new wave of opportunities that will transform the industry. In operations, these technologies can lead to new Ways of Working and deliver next generation Integrated Operations Centers (IOCs); empowering them to be the digital watering holes at the center of world-class operations. Several companies have publicized the effectiveness of their IOC initiatives in terms of cost savings, reduced losses and increased production. However, the success of Integrated Operations initiatives is not guaranteed; many IOCs have been deployed that have failed to live up to expectations.
Based on decades of experience delivering IOCs, this paper will explore the underlying principles that should be behind every IOC program, as well as the key program elements and delivery methodology that, while not guaranteeing success, go a long way to addressing the issues common to unsuccessful projects.
The principles proposed as the drivers behind an IOC initiative all support the philosophy that delivering an IOC is a long-distance race, not a sprint that ends when the center opens. The consequence of this is that any IO program should think of the center as a capability that should be delivered as manageable chunks into an operations culture that embraces evolution and change. To support these principles, the paper discusses eight key elements to include as part of the delivery program. These elements do more than support the delivery program, they also ensure the sustainability of the IOC capability. Finally, the paper discusses the advantages of adopting a delivery methodology from software development that has been shown to significantly improve the delivery of value, the engagement of stakeholders and the programs ability to cope with evolving changes.
The paper describes an innovative approach to performance improvement using Causal Learning (CL), a method based on the general observation that a business performance is largely the outcome of the organization, processes and procedures, ways of working, constraints and norms - the systems that the business applies to itself. These system causes are often remote from physical causes of equipment failures and as such remain hidden until revealed by appropriate analysis. The objective of CL is discovering these system causes that ultimately lead to an undesired outcome or event. CL helps us "learn" the performance system, develop insights from these discoveries and recognize the specific aspects of a system that require change to shift business performance. The Company adopted this approach to improve problem solving and root cause analysis of machinery failures. The initial decision to apply CL followed several outages of power generation systems that continued to occur after previous analyses of similar events in the past. An Enhanced Problem Solving Team (EPST) was established and trained to apply Causal Learning principles to reveal the underlying system causes of these outages. In the time since that first analysis the tools and techniques of CL have been applied to other undesired or unexpected business outcomes including HSE and project work with little or no direct technical content. CL reveals the contribution of well-intended human behaviours behind unwanted outcomes (e.g.
There are significant trends in the reduction of traditional 2D design, this is being replaced by the sole development of 3D models. This paper will detail how to develop algorithms to automate large aspects of a design review. These techniques significantly increase efficiency, ensure constancy and optimise the accuracy of the design, leading to reduced project costs.
Utilising the 3D models enriched metadata and by developing independent algorithms, it is possible to create a cyberphysical model that enables automation of the design review. For example; using the geometrical data in the 3D model to check a hazard with respect to a detector, confirming that the detector is located close to the hazard. There are multiple checks similar this example, cataloguing and scripting these checks can be managed within PLM software.
Using algorithmic automation techniques reduces the overall design hours of a project, it checks the consistency of the design. Getting it right first time reduces the number of changes later in the project lifecycle, avoiding expensive rework costs. During the first phase of this initiative, we have found, that automation leads to a reduction of design hours by 10% and increases the accuracy and consistency of the design review.
This first phase of automation uses the metadata in the 3D model, where the output from the check leads to a comment on the design. To scale the pilotm which will encompass the inclusion of other data sources, will further enrich the cyberphysical model. Ultimately, by creating a decisions database and using Artificial Intelligence we will be able to close the loop, which will lead to a design that is fully evaluated before it leaves the designer. It is also possible to automate in other phases of the project lifecycle, where image recognition will compare the real asset to the model.
This level of automation is unique, there are other low-level forms of automation, but the advancements of this technology has, to our knowledge, not been attempted in the Oil and Gas sector. The development and scaling of this technology is novel and will have a significant impact on the way future projects are executed.
A Digital Twin is a software representation of a facility which can be used to understand, predict, and optimize performance to help to achieve top performance and recover future operational losses. The Digital twin consists of three components: a process model, a set of control algorithms, and knowledge.
Usually the time for commissioning a project exceeds the initial estimations, therefore delays in project completion are quite common. This is often because ICSS testing is done on a static system which does not account for how the system will react dynamically to certain scenarios such as start-ups and shutdowns. Issues such as configuration errors, loop behaviors, start-up over-rides, dead-lock inter-trips and sequence logic are difficult to predict and are impossible to anticipate during static testing. Such delays lead to higher costs and therefore reduced revenue.
This paper aims to describe the most innovative approach to Project & Operational Certainty, which addresses these issues by using a Digital Twin for commissioning support and training. One successful use of this approach was in the Culzean project, an ultra-high-pressure high temperature (UHP/HT) gas condensate development in the UK sector of the Central North Sea. A high-fidelity process model was built and fitted to the actual plant performance based on equipment data sheets. This was connected to ICSS database and graphics, offering a realistic environment, very close to the one offshore, which had the same look and feel for the operators.
Dynamic tests conducted on the Digital Twin predicted issues on the real system, which enabled potential solutions to be tested, leading to a significant decrease in the time spent and cost during commissioning. All the operating procedures were dynamically tested, which enabled us to correct errors, saving time before First Gas. Additionally, all CRO (Control Room Operators) and field technicians were trained and made familiar with the system months in advance, aiming to avoid future unnecessary trips during First Gas.
Finally, all the control loops were fine tuned in the Digital Twin and parameters were passed to off shore, to be used as first starting point. It is expected that these parameters will be very close to fine operational points, as the model used is high fidelity model and very close to real system offshore.
The Hook-up and Commissioning program for the BP operated Clair Ridge facility was conducted over a period of three years, starting with the accommodation platform in 2015/16, and then the Production and drilling platform over 2017 and 2018. The total topsides weight is 53,000 tonnes, and the field is located in the harsh waters of the Atlantic West of Shetland. Typically 750 persons were based offshore, but over the life of the program some 7000 individuals worked offshore at some point on the project. Recognizing the safety leadership challenges with such a major hook-up and changing workforce a huge amount of effort went into preparation and working with our contractors to onboard the workforce. Over the first months of the campaign the safety metrics were healthy and there was a good reporting culture, however an increase in incidents was seen, including one late in 2015 where a medical evacuation was required from the platform. The individual made a full recovery and returned to work however it caused the Operator and Contractor project leaders to reflect on their safety leadership and how they were working with and engaging with the workforce. It was a catalyst for change as the team was determined that no other serious incidents would happen during the project delivery.
In this paper we will share the Clair Ridge safety leadership journey and the steps taken by the operator, with the support and collaboration of the main contractors, to set a new approach to safety through the development of a genuine Culture of Care. This included: Building of trust and credibility between leadership and the workforce Leadership openness and transparency in communication Empowering front-line supervision to be safety leaders and giving them the skills and tools to do this well
Building of trust and credibility between leadership and the workforce
Leadership openness and transparency in communication
Empowering front-line supervision to be safety leaders and giving them the skills and tools to do this well
As a result of the approach the Clair Ridge team is proud that, in the three years since the incident in 2015, over 9 million offshore workhours have been completed without any other Lost Time Incident, and a safe start-up was achieved with no process safety related incidents. Clair Ridge realised some of the highest participation in safety observations and near miss reporting across the Operator's global projects portfolio, a continual and significant reduction in all injuries and benefited from an excellent reporting culture.
A Culture of Care has been owned by all, and been recognised and commended by the contractor workforce and visitors to Clair Ridge.
In a deepwater environment, production fluid conditions have to satisfy complex requirements to flow smoothly to the production facilities on the FPSO. Flow assurance specialists work at turning these constraints into operating guidelines. This allows to close the gap between reservoir conditions, optimized design of the subsea network, topsides processing capabilities and operability requirements.
In the context of Kaombo, offshore Angola (Block 32), the wide range of reservoir conditions and fluids plus the extreme specificities of the subsea network called for an innovative approach with the following objectives: Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties Optimize subsea design margins
Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system
Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls
Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties
Optimize subsea design margins
This new approach, the "Visual Operating Envelopes", aims at explicitly and visually defining the operating limitations of the subsea production loops in a multi-parameters environment: A multi-dimensions map, function of the six main parameters (basically liquid and gas-lift flowrates, water and gas contents, reservoirs pressure and temperature) influencing multiphase flow into pipeline is hence created to evaluate the six main operating constraints (thermal and hydraulic turndown rates, wells eruptivity, maximum flowrates) for the full range of Kaombo fields.
This "operating envelope" tool can then define the minimum and maximum recommended flowrates for different operating conditions based on the following safe criteria: Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature No hydrates risk during preservation No severe slugging effect Production below the flowline design flowrate Velocity below the erosional velocity
Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature
No hydrates risk during preservation
No severe slugging effect
Production below the flowline design flowrate
Velocity below the erosional velocity
In addition, the optimized gas lift flowrate is directly accessible, and the pressure available at every wellhead is compared to the backpressure associated to the operating point to assess the eruptivity of the wells.
By having previously defined an overall operating envelope, it is extremely easy to evaluate quickly the impact of new operating conditions (due to degraded operating conditions, changes in reservoir parameters, modifications in the drilling and wells startup sequence), which makes this new approach very powerful and versatile. It also contributes to the definition of the production forecast during operation phase integrating reservoir depletion and available gas lift rate.
Instead of relying on specific simulations for a limited number of cases, this innovative method defines a new approach where operating parameters are evaluated from the start, and boundaries are clearly identified, thus allowing to build a sound production profile for an extensive range of operating conditions. By doing so, system knowledge is improved, bottleneck conditions are anticipated, operators, flow assurance and geoscience teams are able to tightly collaborate and take smarter decisions together, resulting in more production. Eventually the method applied to a multiphase pipeline is actually transposable to every problem involving multi-dimensional inputs with combined constraints.