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In tight unconventionals, oil and gas rates often are measured daily at separator conditions. Consequently, converting these rates reliably to volumes at standard conditions is necessary in cases where direct stock-tank measurements are not available. Because of changes in producing-wellstream compositions and separator conditions, the separator-oil shrinkage factor (SF) can change significantly over time. The complete paper presents a rigorous and consistent method to convert daily separator rates into stock-tank volumes. Recommendations for developing field-specific shrinkage correlations using field test data also are proposed.
The final afternoon of the 2020 ATCE saw a wide-ranging virtual special session that covered an important but often overlooked facet of the unfolding digitalization revolution. While the rising wave of digital technology usually has been associated with production optimization and cost savings, panelists emphasized that it can also positively influence the global perception of the industry and enhance the lives of its employees. Chaired by Weatherford’s Dimitrios Pirovolou and moderated by John Clegg, J.M. Clegg Ltd., the session, “The Impact of Digital Technologies on Upstream Operations To Improve Stakeholder Perception, Business Models, and Work-Life Balance,” highlighted expertise taken from professionals across the industry. Panelists included petroleum engineering professor Linda Battalora and graduate research assistant Kirt McKenna, both from the Colorado School of Mines; former SPE President Darcy Spady of Carbon Connect International; and Dirk McDermott of Altira Group, an industry-centered venture-capital company. The final afternoon of the 2020 ATCE saw a wide-ranging virtual special session that covered an important but often overlooked facet of the unfolding digitalization revolution.
Benefits of holding the certificate include contribution to business sustainability and improved relationships with key stakeholders such as the State and the communities in the area of influence. This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Judy Feder, contains highlights of paper SPE 199429, “Road to the Blue Certificate for Production Activity in the Peruvian Amazon: Committed to Responsible Water Management,” by Carlos Ahumada Morales, Fernando Gutierrez Mesías, and Ruth Celina Zorrilla Salazar, Repsol, prepared for the 2020 SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Environment, and Sustainability, originally scheduled to be held in Bogota, Colombia, 28–30 July. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
The United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” In the context of this definition, sustainable water management should encompass current management of water resources as well as its potential effect on the future. Sustainable water management in oil and gas is a journey that will need approaches from many perspectives. The highlighted papers illustrate the different perspectives and accompanying complexities that can advance progression toward more-sustainable water management. The approaches are multifaceted in that they consider technological, environmental, economic, and social needs and responsibility.
Charles Bare, 1979 SPE President and an Honorary Member of the Society, died 25 October. Bare graduated from the University of Oklahoma in petroleum engineering and began his career at Magnolia Petroleum Co. in 1954. He joined Conoco as a research scientist in Ponca City, Oklahoma, in 1961 where he developed computer applications. He was transferred to Houston in 1969 and worked in the engineering department and then in the production department where he held various engineering and management positions with responsibilities for international production operations in Libya and Indonesia. He was the exploration and production operations manager for Russia and held managerial positions in Conoco UK for 6 years.
Zeng, Liqin (National Engineering Research Center for Inland Waterway Regulation, School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University) | Liu, Mingwei (National Engineering Research Center for Inland Waterway Regulation, School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University) | Ma, Yuanfei (National Engineering Research Center for Inland Waterway Regulation, School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University) | Zhu, Chenhao (National Engineering Research Center for Inland Waterway Regulation, School of River and Ocean Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University)
Due to the lack of specific specifications and standards, the anticorrosion process of steel structures in China's inland river wharf is mainly based on the practice of the harbor wharf. The continuous erosion of the anticorrosive coating of hydraulic steel structures, coatings fell off in a large range and caused the exposed and rusty steel structures, which directly affects the normal use of hydraulic steel structures. The erosion of anticorrosive coating on steel structures surface was a relatively long process, and the field test is not easy to track and observe at any time. In order to obtain the corresponding test results in a short time, and to predict the long-term corrosion behavior and service life of materials and structures, a set of accelerated erosion test device for anticorrosive coating was developed. It can be used to study the erosion law of anticorrosive coatings under different erosion conditions in the environment of sand flow.
With the development of water transport, steel structures are more and more used in inland river port structures, deep water wharf substructures and shipborne components. According to statistics, the world's waste steel materials due to corrosion account for more than 1/5 of the annual output, and the direct economic losses caused by steel corrosion in developed countries account for 2% ~ 4% of GDP (Grundmeier, 2000; Hagen, 2019; Mahdavi, 2019). After corrosion, steel structure will not only wear out the material, but also affect the stress of the structure, thus reducing the safety of the structure, which may cause huge loss of life and property.
Due to the lack of specific codes and standards, the anticorrosion process of steel structures in mountainous rivers and other inland rivers in China mainly refers to the practices of seaport wharf and the relevant codes for coating protection of steel structures for anticorrosion, viscoelastic materials are used to protect steel structures (Chen, 2015). According to the field investigation, the dry season alternates with the wet season, and the steel structure coating in the water level fluctuation area is scoured by the sand flow and the sun's irradiation, resulting in partial overall peeling off. Different parts of the steel structure are exposed to rust, and the corrosion is increasingly aggravated, as shown in Fig.1. The main reason for this phenomenon is the serious erosion of anti-corrosion coating on steel structure by sand flow in inland river environment (Liu, 2018).
Wang, Yu (College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University) | Han, Yang (College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University) | Liu, Yang (College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University) | Zhang, Zuo Tian (College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University)
In this paper, the hydrodynamic performance of Magnus effect swing rotating cylinder is studied by model experiment and PIV experiment, the influence of swing speed, swing angle and swing-to-rotate ratio of swing rotating cylinder on lift and flow field structure is analyzed. It is found that the lifting force of the cylinder increases with the increase of the swing-to-rotate ratio and tends to be stable after reaching the maximum value; The lift of the cylinder increases all the time with the increase of the swing speed, the stable section moves backward gradually; The lift of the cylinder increases gradually with the increase of the swing angle. With the increase of swing-to-rotate ratio, the distance of the lag and forward movement of the separation point on the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder, the angle between the vortex shedding and the horizontal direction increases. The increase of swing velocity can intensify the fusion and breaking of positive and negative vortices, and make the wake field more disordered.
Λ Swing-to-rotate ratio
ns Swing angular velocity
nr Rotation angular velocity
r Cylinder radius
L Cylinder length
When the viscous fluid passes through the rotating cylinder, the relative velocity difference between the upper and lower sides of the cylinder will be generated due to the rotation of the cylinder. According to Bernoulli equation, the pressure difference between the upper and lower sides of the rotating cylinder will be generated, resulting in a force perpendicular to the flow direction. However, there are many cases of no flow in engineering that need Magnus force, such as the ship's zero speed anti rolling. At this time, Magnus force cannot be generated only by the rotation of the cylinder, and the cylinder needs to be swung to obtain the relative flow speed.At present, the researchers have not carried out relevant research on the swinging rotating cylinder. The main research focuses on the rotating cylinder. The first experiment of the rotating cylinder is Prandtl (1925). He found that there is a limit lift value of 4π in the laminar flow of the rotating cylinder. Due to the limitations of technology, it is impossible to measure and study the vortex shedding of a rotating cylinder. Kang (1999) studied the flow around a rotating cylinder under laminar flow. He found that a rotating cylinder based on viscous flow can improve the wake at certain speed ratios, suppress vortex shedding, and effectively reduce flow-induced vibration. Ingham (2014) studied the flow of rotating cylinders at low Reynolds numbers through numerical simulation. Chen (1993) studied the rotating cylinder at Re=200 through numerical simulation and found the vortex release process of multiple vortices in the wake at higher speeds. Kang (2006) found that the flow field will be relatively stable at certain relative speeds when the Reynolds number is small in subsequent studies. Mittal (2003) studied the time-domain variation of the lift resistance coefficient of a rotating cylinder at a Reynolds number of 200-1000. Dmitry A (2012) based on OpenFOAM used large eddy simulation to study the flow of a rotating cylinder with a Reynolds number of 3900. Karabelas (2012) used the LES method to calculate the flow around a rotating cylinder at a Reynolds number of 140,000. He found that as the speed ratio increased, the resistance of the cylinder decreased and the lift increased. In recent years, with the rapid development of computer technology, the speed of image processing has been rapidly improved. Many researchers have proposed new experiment methods for flow field measurement. Among them, the most widely used is particle image velocimetry..Lam (2002) studied the sinusoidal oscillatory motion of cylindrical turbulence through the PIV experiment. He analyzed the distribution and development of large-scale vortices in the flow. K.M. Lam (2009) subsequently analyzed the distribution and development of the vorticity field of the cylinder with low rotation speed in the range of 3600~5000 Reynolds number through the PIV experiment. Zhanqi Tang (2018) measured the cylindrical turbulent boundary layer by particle image velocimetry.Kumar studied the coupling characteristics of two parallel cylinders with the same rotation speed through hydrogen bubble flow display technology and particle image velocimetry. The maturity of PIV technology has further developed the research of rotating cylindrical flow field.
Free surface flow around a surface-piercing flat plate operating at incidence is a suitable research subject for marine hydrodynamics, because it includes typical flow features found in marine hydrodynamics such as vortex generation, flow separation, and free surface flows. For those reasons, it is selected by the ITTC committee as a benchmarking case for Stereo PIV(SPIV) test. In this paper, flow past a surface-piercing flat plate is studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The incident angle is 20 degree and the current velocity is 0.4 m/s. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation is carried out and compared with the existing experimental data. The hydrodynamic forces on the flat plate, velocity profile in the wake regions are presented and analyzed. In addition, the vortical structures are identified and visualized by the Liutex/Rortex method.
Flow around surface-piercing structures involves interactions between current, wave and body and is of importance for ship and ocean engineering. Wave-induced pressure gradient will affect the boundary layer around the submerged body and vice versa, boundary layer will affect the waves of first order forces and moments (Metcalf et al., 2006). On the other hand, the submerged structures are commonly with truncated free end at the bottom and the tip vortices shed from bottom will interact with free surface (Briggs et al., 2019).
Similar physical problems have been extensively studied. Stern et al. (1987) studied the effects of waves on the boundary layer of a surfacepiercing flat plate with an upstream horizontal foil with variable depth of submergence used for generation of Stokes waves in a towing tank for a range of wave steepness and average Re=1.64×106. They observed wedge shaped, broken and turbulent separation region on the free surface.
Metcalf et al. (2006) experimentally investigated the unsteady freesurface wave-induced boundary-layer separation for a surface-piercing NACA 0024 foil in a towing tank at three different Froude numbers, 0.19, 0.37 and 0.55 and three Reynolds numbers, 0.822, 1.52 and 2.26×106. They provided mean and unsteady far-field wave elevations, mean and unsteady foil-surface pressures and analyzed the frequency components of shear layer, Karman shedding, and flapping instabilities, respectively. However, no PIV measurement is conducted in their study.
Pragma is bringing the industry’s first 3D metal printed, ultrahigh expansion bridge plug to market, the Aberdeen-based company said in a press release. Its patented M-Bubble bridge plug has successfully completed final lab testing and is due to begin field trials by the end of 2020. Initially targeted at both the plug-and-abandonment (P&A) sector and water shutoff applications, the first M-Bubble addresses a gap in the market for a lower-cost, fast-turnaround, permanent plugging solution, with a high pressure differential (3,000 psi) capability, the company said. The plug can be set without additional cement to save rig time and “waiting-on-cement” time, which can accumulate significant savings for the operator, especially in deeper, extended-reach wells. It also provides barrier-integrity reassurance when there is the possibility of a poor cement bond or cement channeling occurring on the high side of deviated wells, the company added.
Chemistry solutions and equipment technologies company ChampionX is combining its research and development capabilities with nanotechnology company Modumetal, and its materials and processes, in an exclusive collaboration agreement to drive production-related technology developments. The collaboration will introduce ChampionX’s Norris rod couplings coated with Modumetal nanolaminate technology.