Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A common oilfield emulsion where oil droplets (the internal phase) are suspended and surrounded by the water (the continuous or external phase).
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A predominately oil phase drilling mud with trace water ( 10%) as an additive or a contaminant. Note: special cleanup and dispersants are needed before displacing with brine or treating with acids.
The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline. Generally, the gathering pipeline system is a series of pipelines that flow from the well production facilities in a producing field to a gathering "trunk" pipeline. Gathering systems typically require small-diameter pipe that runs over relatively short distances. The branch lateral lines commonly are 2 to 8 in. Gathering systems should be designed to minimize pressure drop without having to use large-diameter pipe or require mechanical pressure-elevation equipment (pumps for liquid and compressors for gas) to move the fluid volume. For natural-gas gathering lines, the Weymouth equation can be used to size the pipe. "Cross-country" transmission pipelines will collect the product from many "supply" sources and "deliver" to one or more end users. Transmission pipelines will generally require much larger pipe than gathering systems. Transmission systems normally are designed for long distances and will require pressure-boosting equipment along the route. Many factors must be considered when designing, building, and operating a pipeline system. Once the basic pipe ID is determined using the applicable flow formula, the other significant design parameters must be addressed. For U.S. applications, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines are governed by regulations and laws that are nationally administered by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT).
Deposition of the high-molecular-weight components of petroleum fluids as solid precipitates in surface facilities, pipelines, downhole tubulars, and within the reservoir are well-recognized production problems. The deposits also can contain resins, crude oil, fines, scales, and water. Asphaltenes and waxes are a general category of solids and, thus, cover a wide range of materials. Understanding the fundamental characteristics that define the nature of asphaltenes and waxes is valuable in reducing or avoiding the production impacts of their deposition. This page examines the general chemical classifications and types of asphaltenes and waxes, in addition to their solidification behaviors.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A corrosion mechanism in which atomic hydrogen enters between the grains of the steel, and causes the steel to become very brittle.