The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the choice of the conveyance method for Production Logging operations is key in horizontal wells, as it affects the flow dynamics and changes the well inflow performance compared to undisturbed flowing conditions. A case study is presented, showing that critical decisions to develop a field (or not) may have been wrongly influenced by Production Logging results, if the effects of the conveyance on the inflow distribution were not correctly understood.
Synthetic production logs and flowing pressure distributions along the horizontal section were computed, and sensitivities on conveyance method diameter (coiled tubing, tractor and cable), pipe diameter, well length and reservoir properties were also conducted. These results were compared with the normal well flowing conditions to establish the representativeness of the PL measurements. A method for simulating the undisturbed production profile is presented, which uses the results of a Multirate Production Logging and recomputed flowing pressures using nodal analysis.
The presence of the conveyance method alters the well's inflow performance and zonal contributions, due to the modifications of the flow geometry and additional frictional pressure drop. The bottomhole flowing pressure is disturbed, with lower pressures around the heel and higher towards the toe. The drawdown along the horizontal gets modified, acting as a preferential choke for production coming from the toe and increasing the driving force for production from the heel. The severity of the drawdown unbalance is a function of the induced frictional pressure, given by the pipe and conveyance diameter, well length, flow rates, etc. The simulations and sensitivities presented in this paper help to understand how significant the PL measurements are, and when these results become misleading. The case study supports these findings, where the pressure disturbance induced by the conveyance changed the flow distribution dramatically, wrongly indicating than an area of the field was relatively depleted compared to the zone around the heel. The lack of understanding of the impact of the conveyance method can lead to poor developmental decisions.
The application of real - time monitoring technologies presents a means to harnessing proactive or reactive controls in minimizing severity effects of slugging in the production system. This paper presents the development of a non-intrusive optical infrared sensing (NIOIRS) setup, for slug monitoring in pipes. The flow characteristics monitored were the development of slug flows and average phase fractions of gas and liquid in a vertical test section (0.018m by 1m) for superficial velocities of 0-0.131 m/s for water and 0 – 0.216 m/s for air. The measurement principle was based on the disparities in refractive indices of each phase in the sensing area. The sensing component of the sensor consisted of two pairs of IR emitters and photodiodes operated at wavelengths of 880 nm specifications. A circuit, for signal conditioning, amplification and data acquisition was set up to convert infrared light detected into voltage signals. Development of slug flow regimes was monitored from signal distributions binned under reference voltages. The transitions from bubble to slug flow, were observed at 10 percent count ratios of the signal distributions around typical sensor reponse for air. Validation from photos showed good agreements with the sensor response. A single peaked distribution around the reponse for water indicated bubble flow regimes, with the development of two peaks indicated increasing gas slugs for increasing superficial gas velocities compared to liquid slug in the pipe. Phase fraction results were interpreted from a derived calibration model, which was based on the average observed voltage and reference voltages of water and air over time. This model was compared with swell level changes, photographs and homogenous and drift flux correlation with agreement within +/-2 % for all flow regimes observed in the pipe. The Real-time application was carried out via the execution of an algorithm which incoprated the calibration information from the NIOIRS. The derived signals were processed and analysed onto a display in identifying slug flows development and phase fractions in real-time. A cheap and accurate sensing setup has been developed with the potential of real time monitoring of flow regimes and phase fraction detemination.
Makwashi, Nura (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Sarkodie, Kwame (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Akubo, Stephen (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Zhao, Donglin (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Diaz, Pedro (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University)
Curved pipes are essential components of subsea process equipment and some part of production pipeline and riser. So far, most of the studies on of wax deposition and the possible mitigation strategies have been carried out using straight pipelines, with little attention given to curved pipes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to use an experimental flow loop designed and assembled in the lab to study and understand the mechanisms and variable parameters that affect wax depositional behaviour under the single-phase flow. Series of experiments were carried out with pipes curvatures of 0, 45 and 90-degree at different flow rates (2 and 11 L/min). The sequence in which the bends are incorporated creates non-uniformity of boundary shear, flow separation, and caused isolation of fluid around the bends that affect wax deposition, which depends on flow regimes – Reynolds number along with the radius of curvature of the bend. Prior to the flow loop experiment, the waxy crude oil was characterized by measuring the viscosity, WAT (30°C), pour point (25.5°C), n-Paraffin distribution (C10 - C67), and the saturated/aromatic/resin/asphalte (SARA) fractions
Results of this study shows that the wax deposit thickness decreases at higher flow rate within the laminar (Re<2300) and turbulent (Re>2300) flow regimes. It was observed that the deposition rate was significantly higher in curved pipes, about 8 and 10% for 45 and 90-degree, respectively in comparison to the straight pipe for all flow conditions. Increase elevation of the curved pipe, however, led to a more wax deposition trend; where a higher percentage of wax deposit was observed in 45-degree compared to 90-degree curved pipe. This trend was due addition of gravity forces to the frictional forces - influenced by the physical mechanisms of wax deposition mainly molecular diffusion, shear dispersion and gravity settling. From the results of this study, a new correlation between wax deposit thickness and pressure drop was developed. A relationship was established between wax deposit thicknesses, bend angle in pipes and wax deposition mechanisms with a reasonable agreement with published data, especially for steady state condition. Therefore, this study will enhance the understanding of the wax deposition management and improve predictions for further development of a robust mitigation strategy.
The paper provides analytical and semi-analytical solutions to predict the temperature transient behavior of a vertical well producing slightly compressible fluid under specified constant-bottom-hole pressure or rate in a two zone, radial composite no-flow reservoir system, where the inner zone could represent the skin zone, whereas the outer zone represents non-skin zone. The solutions are obtained by solving the decoupled isothermal diffusivity equation for pressure and thermal energy balance equation for temperature for the inner and outer zones by using the finite-difference and Laplace transformation. They be used to simulate temperature transient behavior for the general cases of specified variable bottom-hole or rate production represented by piecewise constants in specified time intervals. The convection, conduction, transient adiabatic expansion and Joule-Thomson heating effects are all considered in solving the temperature equation. Graphical analysis procedures for analyzing such temperature transient data jointly with pressure or rate transient data are also discussed. The results show that sandface temperature first decreases due to adiabatic expansion and then increases due to Joule-Thomson heating for both constant rate and constant bottomhole pressure production cases during infinite-acting flow. During boundary dominated flow, sandface temperature decreases linearly with time due to pore-volume expansion of the fluid over the entire no-flow reservoir system. The time rate of decline is governed by the ratio of the adiabatic-expansion coefficient of the fluid to the volumetric heat capacity of the saturated medium and the pore volume. However, these flow regimes are not well-defined for the constant bottomhole production case because the sandface rate decreases continuously during the infinite-acting radial flow and boundary dominated flow periods and distorts the flow regimes which are well defined on the temperature behavior if the well were produced at a constant rate. Sandface temperature data under specified variable rate or bottom-hole pressure show complicated behaviors and require more general automated history matching methods based on simultaneous use of both sandface temperature and rate transient data sets for parameter estimation.
Liquid loading phenomenon is known as the inability of the produced gas to carry all the co-produced liquid to the surface. Under such condition, the non-removed liquid accumulates at the wellbore resulting in reduction of the production and sometimes cause the death of the well. Several studies were carried out and correlation were developed based on field and experimental data with the aim to predict the onset of liquid loading in a gas well. However, each model provides different indication on the critical gas velocity at which the liquid loading exists. Thus, to have a clear understanding on the difference between most used models, experiments were performed in an upward inclinable pipe section. The 60-mm diameter test pipe was positioned at angles of 30°, 45° and 60° from horizontal. The fluids used were air and light oil. Measurements include fluid velocities and fluid reversal point. High-speed video cameras were used to record the flow conditions in which the onset of liquid loading initiated. Experimental results were compared with existing models by
Acid fracture operations in carbonate formations are used to create highly conductive channels from the reservoir to the wellbore. Conductivity in calcite formations is expected to be highest near the wellbore, where most of the etching occurs. The near wellbore fracture etched-width profile can be estimated from the measured temperature distribution. Temperature data can be obtained from fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) installed behind casings to monitor fracturing operations.
Heat transfer is commonly coupled in acid fracture models to account for temperature's effects on acid reactivity with carbonate minerals. Temperature profiles are usually evaluated during simulations of fracture fluid injection, but seldom during fracture closure. Since most of the acid is spent during injection, many models have assumed that the remaining acid reacts proportionally along the fracture length. Because of this assumption, neither acid spending nor temperature is usually simulated during fracture closure.
In this study, a fully integrated temperature model was developed wherein both the acid reaction and heat transfer were simulated while the fracture was closing. At each time step, transient heat convection, conduction, and generation were calculated along the wellbore, reservoir, and fracture dimensions. Modeling temperature during this transient period provides a significant understanding of the fracture etched-width distribution. During shut-in, cold fracture fluids are heated, mainly because of heat flow from the formation to the fracture. The amount of fluid stored in the fracture determines how fast the fluid is heated. Wider fracture segments contain larger amounts of cold fracture fluids, resulting in it taking longer to reach the reservoir temperature. Because of this phenomenon, near a wellbore, the vertical fracture etched-width profile can be determined from the temperature distribution. Also, minerals' spatial distributions along the wellbore's lateral can be estimated in multistage acid fracturing. This is done by minimizing the difference between the observed and modeled temperatures.
This evaluation of etched width profiles at the fracture entrance provides an estimation of fracture-conductive channel locations. Moreover, it has significantly improved the understanding of mineralogy distribution in multi-layer formations. This information will be particularly useful when designing acid fracturing jobs in nearby wells or revisiting the same wellbore for further stimulation.
As a Flow Measurement Consultant at NEL, Craig’s responsibilities include working on a large variety of R&D, training and consultancy projects focused on single and multi-phase metering technology. He performs a variety of roles including project formulation, project management, technical lead, planning/delivering test work, data analysis and report writing. Craig has spent 10 years at NEL completing work in the technical areas of engineering design and review for custody transfer and fiscal metering measurement systems, measurement allocation philosophy documents, measurement system audits and financial exposure calculations. Currently, Craig is undertaking a doctorate degree at Coventry University in heavy oil and bitumen flow measurement and as part of the work has developed a Reynolds number correction method calculating flow and fluid physical properties in real-time. Risk management in thermal wellbore integrity can be promoted by the proper collection, processing and interpretation of data from various types of wellbore instrumentation.
With multistage operations becoming the industry norm, operators need easily deployable diversion technologies that will protect previously stimulated perforations and enable addition of new ones. This paper reviews several aspects of the use of in-stage diversion. Significant production gains are being made with hydraulicly fractured wells using diversion to stimulate a higher percentage of the perforations.
In a collaborative project, the possibility of measuring fluid levels in a wellbore by use of distributed optical pressure gauges was conceived, prototyped, field-trialed, and further developed to a point of widespread commercialization. The treatment in a deepwater, frac-packed well with fiber-optic-equipped coiled tubing (CT) and a rotating, hydraulic high-pressure jetting tool achieved successful stimulation of a 500-ft-long frac-packed zone after several previous failures using different techniques. In the past decade, fiber-optic -based sensing has opened up opportunities for in-well reservoir surveillance in the oil and gas industry. In this paper, the authors present a recent example of single-phase-flow profiling with distributed acoustic sensing.
Use of surfactants and gas lift in combination to suppress severe slugging were tested. Surfactants were able to suppress severe slugging for most of the cases, and gas lift helped significantly. The presence of slug flow in the riser of the sunken Deepwater Horizon could make a significant difference in financial penalties for BP in the wake of the Macondo incident, an expert said. Riser slugging can restrict production and cause problems for downstream equipment. This paper discusses a simplified modeling approach to control of riser slugging.