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Flowmeters are used to measure liquid/gas products. Turbine flowmeters are an effective means of accurate measurement of liquid/gas products in many industries. Because of the turbine meter's versatility and flexibility in product metering applications, it is one of the most widely used technologies in flow measurement. Turbine meters were invented in the 18th century by Reinhard Woltman, and at that time were used for water-flow measurement. In the 1950s, turbine meters were first used for hydrocarbon measurement for aeronautical applications within aircraft.
Turbulent flow consist of eddies of various size range, and the size range increases with increasing Reynolds number. At very small scale, the energy of the eddies dissipates into heat due to viscous forces. Energy dissipation rate is the parameter to determine the amount of energy lost by the viscous forces in the turbulent flow. Different approaches are used to calculate the energy dissipation rate, depending on the type of restrictions the fluid passes through. Turbulent flow is a complex phenomenon, which may seem highly unpredictable.
In a PCP system, produced fluid flows from the pump to surface through the annular area between the rod string and tubing. High fluid viscosities, elevated flow rates, or restricted flow paths can result in large shear stresses developing in the fluid, which cause large frictional forces to act on the rod string. Fluid-flow effects can range from having a minor to a dominant influence on PCP system design. This is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows pressure losses for a range of flow rates and viscosities through a 100 m [328 ft] length of 76 mm [3.0 in.] Note that the pressure-drop values range from nearly zero to values that exceed the corresponding hydrostatic pressure.
The downtime of manufacturing machinery, engines, or industrial equipment can cause an immediate loss of revenue. Reliable prediction of such failures using multivariate sensor data can prevent or minimize the downtime. With the availability of real-time sensor data, machine-learning and deep-learning algorithms can learn the normal behavior of the sensor systems, distinguish anomalous circumstances, and alert the end user when a deviation from normal conditions occurs.
All pressure transducers operate on the principle of converting a pressure change into a mechanical displacement, or deformation. Deformation of the sensing element is then converted into an electrical signal that is processed by the measuring system. Types of pressure transducers available in the field, either individually or in combination, are mechanical, capacitance, strain gauge and quartz gauge. This article discusses how each of these types of pressure transducers operate. The first pressure transducers had mechanical-force-summing elements that converted energy into mechanical displacement, or deformation, and then coupled the generated force to a recording device.
The three primary functions of a drilling fluid depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. These functions includes: The transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability. If the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore.
The pressure drop experienced in lifting reservoir fluids to the surface is one of the main factors affecting well deliverability. As much as 80% of the total pressure loss in a flowing well may occur in lifting the reservoir fluid to the surface. Wellbore flow performance relates to estimating the pressure-rate relationship in the wellbore as the reservoir fluids move to the surface through the tubulars. The flow path through the wellbore may include flow through perforations, a screen and liner, and packers before entering the tubing for flow to the surface. In addition, the tubing string may be composed of multiple tubing diameters or allow for tubing/annulus flow to the surface.
In the modeling of any system, one is always faced with the dilemma of choosing the level of complexity that correctly predicts the response of interest. In the case of modeling the electrical heating of wells and reservoirs for heavy or extra-heavy oil at low frequencies (below the microwave range) and considering only one liquid phase and no gas phases, the systems of equations shown in this article are considered sufficient. The problem is still unsolved for the case of microwave heating of reservoirs, in which a complete model, which correctly takes into account the electric losses of a system of solid grains, liquids with dissolved gases and salts (with the corresponding complex geometrical, scaling, and electrochemical properties in the presence of electrical diffusion currents and space charges), is not yet available. For the case of concentrated heating (either resistive or inductive) and distributed heating in the reservoir and surrounding regions (at frequencies below the microwave range) or distributed heating in the metal elements (at any frequency) the equations given next (in a cylindrical coordinate system) are deemed sufficient. The third term on the left, the product of temperature multiplied by the divergence of the velocity, has been neglected in many models of heating of reservoirs (it is strictly zero only for incompressible fluids.).
The pressures in a flowing fluid are calculated assuming the value of the Fanning friction factor is known. Determination of the Fanning friction factor, in fact, may be the most difficult step in this calculation. Fluid friction is studied by the science of rheology. The science of rheology is concerned with the deformation of all forms of matter, but has had its greatest development in the study of the flow behavior of suspensions in pipes and other conduits. The rheologist is interested primarily in the relationship between flow pressure and flow rate, and in the influence thereon of the flow characteristics of the fluid. Only the first four are of interest in drilling-fluid technology.
In a dynamic calculation, there are two effects not considered in steady flow: fluid inertia and fluid accumulation. In steady-state mass conservation, flow of fluid into a volume was matched by an equivalent flow out of the volume. In the dynamic calculation, there may not be equal inflow and outflow, but fluid may accumulate within the volume. For fluid accumulation to occur, either the fluid must compress, or the wellbore must expand. When considering the momentum equation, the fluid at rest must be accelerated to its final flow rate.