Albert, Larry (Allied-Horizontal Wireline Services) | Booher, Jason (Allied-Horizontal Wireline Services) | Wilson, Anthony (Allied-Horizontal Wireline Services) | Hamilton, Fraser (Impact Selector International) | Hradecky, Jason (Impact Selector International) | Dunning, Dustin (Wireco WorldGroup) | Pratosov, Vadim (Wireco WorldGroup)
An E&P operator was developing a reservoir and planned a horizontal well in an area where zones above the target cause drilling problems when trying to build angle and land the horizontal lateral. The operator suffered drilling difficulties on offset wells; therefore, it was decided to change the drilling plan for this prospect. The new plan required drilling through the target reservoir, into the formations below and then drill back up dip to the target. After reaching the base at a measured depth of 14,000 ft. the well plan required drilling up at maximum of 114° until reentering the target reservoir. Because of faulting in the area and required well direction, the target reservoir was dipping up at ∼10° laterally in the direction of the horizontal drilling target. To maintain position in the reservoir, the well had to drilled at ∼100° deviation to a measured depth of 21,100 ft.
This wellbore trajectory made normal wireline plug and perforating completion operations extremely difficult. The wellbore trajectory meant high frictions on the wireline when coming off bottom. Also, due to the toe-up trajectory there was risk the wireline tools would slide down the inclined casing during and after plug setting and perforating. If the tool position could not be maintained there was risk the wireline cable could be entangled and a stuck tool could result. If the tools overrun the wireline cable the result could be wireline cable next to the perforating guns when detonated and wireline cable severed. The E&P operator needed to know if this challenge could be met.
Alternatives to pump down plug and perforating could be very expensive (estimated $millions): Abandon acreage, Continue drilling attempts building angle above the target, Reposition surface location and drill down dip, Reduce angle and shorten lateral in target, or Coiled tubing conveyed plug and perforating completion.
Continue drilling attempts building angle above the target,
Reposition surface location and drill down dip,
Reduce angle and shorten lateral in target, or
Coiled tubing conveyed plug and perforating completion.
To meet the challenge several new methods and technologies developed for extended laterals were utilized. These products and methods included: advanced risk deployment modeling, jacketed wireline cable, addressable separation tool and downhole tension tool.
Pre-set or off-depth composite plugs can cause significant non-productive time for a well operator. In the past, fracturing operations using a composite frac or bridge plug that has been pre-set or set off depth required a coiled tubing unit or workover rig to drill the plug out. Then, the well operator could resume the fracturing job or access the wellbore below the plug. However, as this paper demonstrates, composite plug milling via wireline using a tractor and a tractor-based milling tool is a faster, safer, and more cost-effective solution.
In a shale well located in the northern panhandle of West Virginia, a composite frac plug was set off- depth. Prior to mobilizing the tractor-based solution to location, the operator attempted pumping approximately 60,000 pounds of sand to sand-cut the off-depth frac plug out of the well. The sand cutting, though, did not work because perforations above the frac plug took the sand. Other tubing-based solutions required more mobilization time and complex logistics for rigging down and/or moving equipment on location. Therefore, the operator chose a wireline-based method for ease of operation, reduced HSE risk, and cost savings.
The tractor took 50 minutes to drive down 1718 ft in the lateral to the plug. The milling tool milled the top slips on the frac plug in approximately nine hours, and the tractor then pushed the plug 222 ft downhole on top of the previous frac plug. The total time rigged up on the well was 14 hours, and the total time on location was 18 hours. Although this wireline-based plug-milling method takes several hours to mill a plug, the rig-up and execution is simpler than conventional methods, and associated HSE risks on the wellsite are greatly reduced.
The ability to effectively release plugs via wireline provides well operators with another option to complete their objectives, especially when tubing-based methods often take many days or weeks to mobilize at substantial cost to operators.
In 2016, Malaysia Petroleum Management (MPM), the regulatory body of PETRONAS launched a 3 year dedicated strategy to intensify the idle wells restoration and production enhancement activities in order to maximize profitability through efficiency and success rate improvement. The basis of this strategy is the risk-sharing integrated operations in which the industry embraced it in all major well intervention activities. As the drilling activities dropped drastically over the past few years, it was crucial that the well intervention activities are carried out with high efficiency and success rate to restore the production.
The strategy went through various development changes throughout the 3 year journey. As the well intervention scope covers a wide range of activities, the framework of this integrated risk sharing mechanism provided the flexibility that is required for the execution of the various scopes and meet specific value targets either profitability from production gain or cost saving from decommissioning and infill drilling. Each of the project carried unique Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as the guiding principles to drive the efficiency improvement that was required. A unique process called Total Wells Management (TWM) was implemented as the overlaying guide to further improve the uncertainty of subsurface challenges, operation optimization and commercial risk exposure.
This paper outlines the overall post mortem analysis of the 22 projects that were executed under this integrated operations strategy between MPM, ten operators and five main service companies. This strategy, known to the industry as the Integrated Idle Wells Restoration (IIWR) program, has become the new norm on how well intervention and subsurface assessments are executed to yield the best results especially in late life fields. The risk sharing integrated framework have proven to be a win-win scenario for all involved parties. The scope was also extended to cover non production adding activities such as wells decommissioning, well startups and pre drilling zonal isolation. IIWR have also opened up the opportunities for many ‘first in Malaysia’ projects such as the first subsea hydraulic intervention, first subsea decommissioning and also the reinstatement of technologies such as coiled tubing catenary. The biggest impact from this 3 years strategy implementation can be seen from the Unit Enhancement Cost (UEC) improvement where the average UEC was reduced from 14 to 17 USD per barrel of oil to about 4 to 7 USD barrel of oil.
Although there were major challenges, the overall results have been very encouraging. This framework is also being replicated for drilling and completion activities as well. Specific to well intervention, this IIWR framework is currently being put through an enhancement process to further expand the landscape of well intervention activities without compromising safety, operational efficiency and business profitability.
Metal expandable annular sealing systems were used in a 4 ½" completion as an effective high-pressure isolation method inside 6" open hole mudstone formation in the Foothills Basin of Colombia. Effective isolation proved to be historically difficult to achieve.
The operator was approached with a solid metal expandable sealing system with rotation capabilities as an annular barrier for a preferred cementless completion. The sealing system needed to be assembled on a full-bore liner able to deliver robust deployment with a high-pressure seal in a worse case washed-out scenario. The deployment of the system consisted of one annular barrier placed above and one annular barrier placed below the mudstone zone.
Following careful job planning with the operator, the rotationally capable completion was deployed without any incidents. To achieve pressure integrity to set the metal expandable annular barriers, a ball seat sealing system was incorporated to allow the system to be closed and the annular barriers to be set.
After putting the well onto the pipeline, the client recorded a 52% increase in their expected produc-tion from previous wells. Successful results were accomplished as effective isolation was achieved and enhanced production was obtained because of the effective stimulation. This paper overviews the appli-cation, design, implementation and results of the use of new metal annular sealing systems in a 4 ½" completion as an effective high-pressure isolation method inside a 6" open hole, drilled in fractured sandstone and mudstone formations.
This paper presents the rapid development of a high expansion retrievable V0-rated bridge plug that effectively leveraged engineering simulation and additive manufacturing to design, optimize, and qualify the new plug in accordance with the ISO14310 and API11D1 standards. This technology was mobilized for deployment into a customer well within less than 12 months.
For this project, a major Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) operator required a high expansion wireline retrievable bridge plug with a small outside diameter (OD) that was capable of gas-tight zonal isolation in 7 in. tubing while meeting the ISO14310 and API 11D1 V0 classifications. To address this challenge, several design concepts were developed using computer-aided design (CAD) and simulated using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine the optimal design and to establish the design factor of safety. Initial prototype testing showed unexpected failures of the mechanical backup system as a result of non-uniform loading from the rubber element, which had been assumed to be evenly distributed for the initial FEA. Leveraging FEA to verify the failure mode increased its fidelity and enabled successful generation of alternate solutions with an alternate material, in this case nickel alloy 718. A revised mechanical backup system was manufactured within three weeks using internal direct metal additive manufacturing capability; it was successfully validated within an additional two weeks. The final V0 trials were successfully completed a month later with additively manufactured components, and the technology was mobilized for deployment into the operator’s well within less than 12 months.
The successful design, development, and mobilization of the 7-in. high expansion V0-rated bridge plug within only 12 months demonstrates how FEA modeling and additive manufacturing can be successfully leveraged to reduce development timelines while identifying and producing innovative solutions. Speed to market and the delivery of robust solutions on time are becoming more critical in the cost-constrained oil market; consequently, tools such as FEA and additive manufacturing are increasingly becoming fundamental methods for meeting these new challenges, as demonstrated by the 7-in. high expansion V0 bridge plug project.
This paper shows how leveraging FEA in conjunction with fundamental testing failure analysis can be critical to overcoming technical challenges. Furthermore, combining these capabilities with additive manufacturing can accelerate timelines and increase the probability of project success and operator satisfaction.
This paper describes the successful delivery of one ultrahigh-rate gas well (more than 250 MMscf/D) completed in a significant gas field offshore Israel with 7-in. In this paper, gravel-pack pore size is evaluated further by use of the permeability of the gravel pack and other methods. A new sizing method is proposed that is based on the effective formation size and the gravel-pack pore size. An operator successfully executed two wireline through-tubing gas-shutoff (GSO) workovers in high-angle openhole-gravel-pack (OHGP) completions to isolate high-gas/oil-ratio (HGOR) zones, resulting in significantly increased oil production.
This workshop is intended to address all types of stimulation practices used in both the North Sea and in continental Europe. To achieve a fruitful discussion, workshop sessions have been designed to address both the very specific technical challenges and the fundamental questions pertaining to stimulation in a sensitive land and offshore environment. Optimising stimulation treatments in these economically challenging times, in both a technically and environmentally challenging arena, requires special considerations. The participation of major and independent operating companies and service companies will allow a wide sharing of views, experiences, and opinions on how to proceed toward successfully meeting all well objectives. The objective of this workshop is to bring together a broad cross-section of people actively involved in stimulation design and implementation within the region, while also introducing a select number of global stimulation specialists who will share their experiences.
This session addresses the challenges of staying above saturation pressure and/or maximizing recovery of the most valuable components for as long as possible, for the entire unit. Additionally, the strategy must include data acquisition and be executed within the confines of reasonable capital requirements, and without significant well intervention. Reservoir & well pressure management issues d. Mature unconventional production wells experience substantial production declines and were likely stimulated less optimally than newer wells. Rather than simply drilling more wells, this has led operators to look to restimulation of wells with reduced production rates and lesser stimulated reservoir volume.
The depressed oil price has spurred a new wave of innovation in oil and gas industry. When a barrel of oil fetched $100 or more, energy companies were focused on drilling wells and pumping crude oil as fast as they could. However, with oil price has settled around $50 a barrel these days, companies are focused on efficiency; getting the most petroleum for the least amount of money. And many are turning to advanced technology or innovation for help. This session will focus on innovative approaches to reduce cost for mature assets to sustain field life including technology, well types, business model, and resource management. This session also aims to address topics on improving recovery factor through innovative activities in production enhancement and optimization, and tertiary recovery method.