Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. Hydrocarbon production that is delayed due to any of several reasons, specifically well repairs, restrictions that curtail production, regulations, etc.
Extraction of oil and gas from underground reservoirs often is accompanied by water or brine, which is referred to as produced water. As reservoirs mature, especially if secondary or tertiary recovery methods are used, the quantity of water climbs and often exceeds the volume of the hydrocarbons before the reservoir is exhausted. The cost of producing, handling, and disposing of the produced water often defines the economic lifetime of a field and the actual hydrocarbon reserves; therefore, understanding and predicting the aspects, behavior, and problems induced by the produced-water flow is important. This page provides an introduction to produced water, production mechanisms, economics, and characterization. Because the produced water is not usually a revenue stream, the emphasis on water-flow prediction, technology development, and engineering application has not traditionally been a major focus of oil- and gas-production engineering.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is the technique or process where the physicochemical (physical and chemical) properties of the rock are changed to enhance the recovery of hydrocarbon. The properties of the reservoir fluid system which are affected by EOR process are chemical, biochemical, density, miscibility, interfacial tension (IFT)/surface tension (ST), viscosity and thermal. EOR often is called tertiary recovery if it is performed after waterflooding. Conformance is the application of processes to reservoirs and boreholes to reduce water production, enhance recovery efficiency, or satisfy a broad range of reservoir management and environmental objectives. Although the use of conformance processes may not result in increased production, such processes can often improve an operator's profitability as a result of the following benefits: Ideally, conformance control should be performed before a condition can result in serious damage.
Many oilfield processes normally employed on the surface may be adapted to downhole conditions. Examples include phase separation, pumping, and compression. Sometimes the design specifications for downhole processes may be looser than surface processing because control is more difficult. Partial processing, in which fluids are separated into a relatively pure phase stream and a residual mixed-phase stream, are most common. Downhole separation technology is best suited for removing the bulk (50 to 90%) of the gas or water, with downstream surface or subsea equipment being used to "polish" the streams for complete separation.
Some of the trends and issues related to water management for tight oil and gas are discussed, including environmental, sustainability, and legislative issues associated with water handling for hydraulic fracturing. Some of the trends and issues related to water management for tight oil and gas are discussed, including environmental, sustainability, and legislative issues associated with water handling for hydraulic fracturing.
The effectiveness of delivering information about a new energy project to community stakeholders varies based on the method used; how a message is framed can affect individual opinions. Models were developed for these wells for future water-production prediction and a spatial analysis was also conducted. This article explores the outlook for the global market and gives insight into technology trends and the regions that hold the biggest opportunities for water treatment.