Complex Toe-to-Heel Flooding (CTTHF) is a short distance flooding technique developed by the authors for sandstone formations. CTTHF applied on horizontal wells and requires at least one barrier and injector hydraulic fracture, also it requires at least one method to control early water production. This paper discusses the design aspects of the CTTHF including the design of barrier fracture, injector fracture, and the produced water control methods. Technical and economical evaluation to rank different design setups is performed and presented.
Advanced commercial reservoir simulator with hydraulic fracturing module was used to simulate different CTTHF setups and reservoir conditions to set the reservoir selection criteria and proper design methodology. In this study, Toe-to-Heel Waterflooding was considered the base case. Sensitivity studies for barrier fracture and injector design has been achieved and presented. Moreover, a sensitivity studies for hydraulic fractures spacing, number of barrier fractures, batch injection scheduling and changing packer location have been performed.
When CTTHF is applied in high permeable sandstone formation, early water production is expected, except produced water control method is used. This study states the feasibility conditions for each proposed produced water control technique. Also, a methodology for candidate reservoir selection, design of barrier and injector fractures is developed and presented. There are multiple fluid systems can be used to create the barrier to seal a pre-determined zone. CTTHF is better reservoir management approach.
The novelty of the CTTHF is giving multiple options for produced water control that maximizes the produced oil and minimizes the water production. CTTHF's produced water control can make some reservoirs economic to produce.
Some of the trends and issues related to water management for tight oil and gas are discussed, including environmental, sustainability, and legislative issues associated with water handling for hydraulic fracturing. Some of the trends and issues related to water management for tight oil and gas are discussed, including environmental, sustainability, and legislative issues associated with water handling for hydraulic fracturing.
Three papers selected from 2018 SPE ATCE look at the challenges and approaches to the treatment of increasing volumes of produced water. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in crude oil can be released to the atmosphere from storage tanks, waste waters, and equipment leaks. A pilot-scale sequential biotrickling/biofiltration unit was designed and tested for removal of VOCs from a wastewater sump. Models were developed for these wells for future water-production prediction and a spatial analysis was also conducted.
The effectiveness of delivering information about a new energy project to community stakeholders varies based on the method used; how a message is framed can affect individual opinions. Models were developed for these wells for future water-production prediction and a spatial analysis was also conducted. This article explores the outlook for the global market and gives insight into technology trends and the regions that hold the biggest opportunities for water treatment.
The recent oil and gas downturn has changed the industry forever; forcing improvement in operational efficiencies with reduced operating costs. However, complex flow assurance challenges persist, and significant strides have been made recently to develop and improve technologies and methodologies to ensure productivity is maximised whilst reducing integrity risks. This session will focus on flow assurance challenges throughout the cradle-to-grave lifecycle of developments, ageing infrastructure and asset integrity, increasing demand of water injection and associated produced water handling, and the latest advanced techniques for monitoring and surveillance.
Ms. Cooper has over 25-years of environmental and sustainability experience in government, industry and a law firm. Her focus is on sustainability, EHS, water management, audits and due diligence, management systems, compliance, regulatory affairs, and stakeholder engagement. Her experience with water and the oil and natural gas industry is diverse and extensive. When working in-house at oil and gas companies, she oversaw their environmental water teams and was involved in regulatory permitting, compliance, life-cycle water management, water data and reporting systems, and risk evaluations at the regional and corporate level. Her produced water experience includes water sourcing, transport, storage, usage, disposal and treatment for release to the surface or reuse.
All oil fields under waterdrive, either from waterflood or a natural aquifer, eventually produce water along with oil. Even gas-cap and depletion reservoirs may produce some water. For these reasons, as well as economics, excess water production is not desirable. The material presented in this section that deals with water control technology has been abstracted from a detailed review of water problems and control technology. This review contains the references to the original literature.