Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is a complex process and often requires more control relative to conventional applications during production operations. Flow Control Devices (FCDs) have been identified as a technology that offers improved efficiency of the process while simplifying the operations. The first FCD completions were installed in SAGD wells in Canada over a decade ago with the intention of improving the steam chamber conformance and reducing the steam-oil ratio (SOR). While it is widely understood that FCD completions, for the most part, have helped achieve the desired uplift for SAGD producers, further optimization could be made on future completion designs and operation strategy by looking at actual performance data from previous installations. The objective of the study was to obtain key design parameters and considerations for future FCD completion designs.
The majority of FCD completions in MacKay River were tubing deployed, installed in previously producing wellbores (retrofit). This study looks at 11 wells that were completed with a Baker Hughes FCDs. The analysis was broken down into 2 segments: production analysis and modelling. Production strategy implemented for each well was taken into account to eliminate variances. The modelling used a combination of steady state simulation (presented in this paper) and numerical simulation (to be presented in part II).
The study showed that TD FCDs improve the performance of SAGD well pairs when implemented in the appropriate candidate wells. An important outcome was the development of a candidate wells’ selection criteria, to ensure the retrofit completion improved performance and did not exacerbate other problems. Furthermore, design consideration were identified to improve the performances of future TD FCD installations.
System instability prediction is essential when designing a production system and/or providing operational adjustment to maintain a stable production. The conventional system Nodal Analysis articulates that the system is unstable to the left of the minimum of the Outflow Performance Relationship (OPR) curve where the well loads up. However, recent data shows that there are stable production points on the left of the minimum of the OPR curve, especially for low permeability shale plays. In this work, a new practical model is presented for both conventional and unconventional wells using Nodal Analysis with a novel approach.
The new approach is based on the derivative analysis of the inflow performance relationship (IPR) and OPR at a nodal point of the bottom hole. Perturbation analysis is used to facilitate the explanation of the new model. It shows that the system is stable when the absolute value of slopes or derivatives of the IPR is greater than that of OPR. To evaluate this concept, transient numerical simulations were conducted using a commercial transient simulator at various IPR conditions, including different permeabilities, for both vertical and horizontal wells. Meanwhile, the concept is also compared with available experimental and field data.
The transient simulation and the available data presented in this study demonstrate that there are stable production operating points on the left of the minimum of the OPR curve. The system stability also depends on the reservoir permeability, i.e., the flow rate corresponding to the onset of instability decreases with decreasing permeability. The new approach predicts this trend well. Overall, the new model matches well with observation from the experiments, field data, and the transient numerical simulations.
To mark the opening of the SPE Annual Caspian Technical Conference in Azerbaijan, industry luminaries will address delegates and journalists, providing insight an vision on the oil and gas industry in the Caspian region. In recent years the Upstream O&G industry has sought to find ways to improve its overall performance, through operational execution excellence and by reviewing and improving the work flow process in order to eliminate waste, add value and improve financial performance. Many companies are already learning from the Past, gathering and analyzing data, adopting the use digital technologies such as the cloud and artificial intelligence in the Present, in order to enable step changes in the Future. When considering Past, Present and the Future, nothing is omitted. Mature field development is already part of the Present and as data analytics evolve, part of the Future too.
Production optimization has become currently one of the most critical aspects for well/reservoir management. This course will cover the following aspects: Nodal Analysis, Formation Damage, Quantification of Formation Damage, Pressure Transient Analysis, Intervention Benefit, and Artificial Lifting (ESP). Every oil company, National, International or an independent company is working on achieving their economic goals by optimizing well deliverability. In this training participants will learn how to evaluate actual well performance and how to optimize well deliverability. Fabio Gonzalez is currently a Reservoir Engineering Advisor with BP on assignment in Kuwait.
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Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. Can be calculated from reservoir properties (reservoir pressure, permeability, skin) or can be a curve fitted to experimental data from the well.