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Two discoveries offshore Mexico add to April’s finding in the Norwegian Sea. The Esox-1 well encountered 58 m of high-quality oil-bearing Miocene reservoirs and will be tied back to Tubular Bells production facilities. The Orca-1 and Marsouin-1 wells have derisked up to 50 Tcf of gas initially in place from the Cenomanian and Albian plays in the BirAllah area, more than sufficient to support a world-scale LNG project, partner Kosmos Energy said. India’s ONGC reported an oil find in Colombia’s Llanos Basin as well as a gas and oil discovery in Brazil’s deepwater Sergipe Alagoas Basin. Development of the Tolmount East discovery will be fast-tracked, the operator said.
The complete paper demonstrates the benefits of honoring data measurements from a multitude of potential sources to help engineers do a better job of including more diagnostics into routine operations to provide additional insight and result in improved models and completion designs. This paper updates a previous case study and presents the results of actual implementation of an optimized steam-injection plan based on the model framework. By measuring which tests best predicted the fractures observed at the Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site, Laredo Petroleum developed a method it hopes will improve fracture modeling in other places. In the complete paper, a new, fully coupled implicit tool was used to model an onshore Omani asset with multiple reservoirs, each featuring different fluids and multiple networks. The complete paper aims at a better understanding of the effect of channel content in complex fluvial channel systems on well-test-derivative responses.
In the complete paper, the inverse-injectivity method of evaluating matrix-stimulation performance is modified and validated with real data of two matrix-acidizing operations in a gas-condensate field. One of the world’s leading energy watchers says the second shale revolution will come in the form of LNG exports. After 70 years of production, more than 30% of the Arab C reservoir stock-tank original oil in place has been recovered through various mechanisms including natural depletion, waterflooding, gas lift implementation, and horizontal-well development. The North field offshore Qatar was observed to have a chance of inner annuli becoming charged with shallow-gas pressure with possible communication to other annuli, which was thought to be a well integrity concern. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has evolved dramatically since the 1980s as a robust remote-sensing technique used to generate 2D maps of surface properties over large areas.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) BP and Kosmos Energy discovered 30 m of net gas pay in good-quality Albian reservoir in the Greater Tortue development area, offshore Senegal. The Greater Tortue Ahmeyim-1 was drilled to a TD of 4884 m in 2500 m of water on the eastern anticline within the unit development area. Other partners are SMPHM and Petrosen. Invictus Energy said results of independent estimates strongly support the possible existence of 1.3 billion BOE at its Cahorra Bassa Basin project in the Muzarabani prospective area of Zimbabwe. Estimates are for total prospective resource of 9.25 Tcf of gas plus 294 million bbl of conventional gas and condensate. Eni confirmed 650 million bbl of oil in place with its Agogo-2 appraisal well in Block 5/06, offshore Angola. The well was drilled to total depth of 3949 m in 1700 m of water, where it encountered 58 m of 31 API oil.
In order to produce from shale gas reservoirs hydraulic fracturing is required. This stimulation technology facilitates the interconnection of the multiple pore systems with the wellbore. Particularly, shale gas reservoirs exhibit a dual porosity system linked to the free and adsorbed fluid phases, being the adsorbed phase a significant control on the long-term production. The adsorbed volume is strongly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) and thus, it is often assumed that higher hydrocarbons in place occur within the high TOC intervals. This study evaluates this relationship and the impact of the adsorbed phase to OGIP (original gas in place) and production behaviors. Analysis of petrophysical data and log-derived TOC of the Duvernay Formation reveals that variations in mineralogy impacts the quantity of TOC. It is observed that increase in carbonate contents correlate with lower organic contents, whereas increase in quartz and clays correlate with higher organic contents. Results of Langmuir isotherms indicate that methane adsorption capacity is directly proportional to the TOC content. In addition, adsorption capacity is corrected for the free pore volume captured by the adsorbed layer in the reservoir conditions. This correction increased the adsorption capacity by 20-25%. Further, this study analyzes production data of two multi-fractured horizontal wells by analyzing the relative contribution of the adsorbed phase to the free gas. It is found that contribution of the adsorbed phase is maximum during the initial phase of the production cycle which declines as the reservoir pressure drops. The estimated relative contribution of the adsorbed phase to OGIP is nearly 50% which is significant to be considered negligible. Further, the contribution from the adsorbed phase is found to be 45% in the early phase of the production which drops down to 25% after 5 years of the production. Finally, this study illustrates that the relation of TOC with fluid characterization and recoverable reserves is complex and should be analyzed with the variation in adsorption and desorption capacity of lighter and heavier components.
Aimed at sharing the unconventional wisdom gained from a hydraulic fracturing monitoring case study in the Montney tight gas play, the work showcases the ability of 4D modeling of collective behaviors of microseismic events to chase the frac fluid and navigate the spatiotemporal fracture evolution. Moreover, microseismicity-derived deformation fields are integrated with volumetric estimates made by rate transient analysis to calibrate spatially-constrained SRV models. Through the case study, we give evidence of fracture containment, evaluate the role of natural fractures and the use of diverting agents, estimate cluster efficiencies, conduct analytical well spacing optimization, model productivity decline induced by communication frac-hits from offsets, and provide contributing fracture dimensions and numerical production forecasts. To support the interpretations, we supplement the work by the results of 3D physics- based analytical modeling and multi-phase numerical simulations, and the findings are then validated using two extensive datasets: production profiles acquired by fiber optic DAS, and reservoir fluid fingerprints extracted from mud logs. Besides describing the evolution of seismicity during the treatment, the applied integrated fracture mapping process gives a more reliable and unique SRV structure that streamlines forward modeling and simulations in unconventional reservoirs as well as contributes to solving inverse problems more mechanistically.
Special Core Analysis, SCAL data has a direct impact on the way fluids are allocated and distributed in the reservoir simulation models, which would directly impact reservoirs' STOIIP estimation and their distribution. Moreover, it directly affects the performance of secondary and EOR flooding processes, and in turn impacts the accuracy of the oil and gas reserve estimates, and the management of these reserves. Therefore, SCAL data could be considered as one of the most critical reservoir input data for reservoir simulation models. This course will shed light on the theoretical and experimental background of SCAL data. It will explain the concept of reservoir wettability and different factors that could induce changes in reservoir wettability.