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Siliciclastic (commonly referred to as clastic) rocks are composed of terrigenous material formed by the weathering of pre-existing rocks, whereas carbonate rocks are composed principally of sediment formed from seawater by organic activity. This difference effects hydrocarbon recovery and therefore is important to understand. Clastic sediments are composed of grains and clay minerals, and siliciclastic sediments are first classified according to grain type. Second, siliciclastics are described in terms of grain size (Figure 1b). Mixtures are described with a modifying term for a less-abundant size, such as clayey sandstone, sandy siltstone, or muddy sandstone (Figure 1c).
The Haft Kel field is located in Iran. Its Asmari reservoir structure is a strongly folded anticline that is 20 miles long by 1.5 to 3 miles wide with an oil column thickness of approximately 2,000 ft. The most probable original oil in place (OOIP) was slightly 7 109 stock tank barrels (STB) with about 200 million STB in the fissures; numerical model history matching resulted in a value of 6.9 109 STB. The matrix block size determined from cores and flowmeter surveys varied from 8 to 14 ft. The numerical simulation model considered matrix permeabilities from 0.05 to 0.8 md.
This page provides a reservoir management case study for an offshore sandstone reservoir under strong waterdrive in which certain well completion strategies have been implemented. This field produces from a series of stacked sandstone reservoirs situated in an angular unconformity trap consisting of an eroded 2 to 6 monocline and an oil/water contact common to all zones. The original oil column was 400 ft thick and contained a 43 API, highly undersaturated crude. The primary recovery mechanism is strong waterdrive. All wells are now gas lifted, although this was not necessary in early field life.
Equal to P1. Glossary of Petroleum Resources Management System - June 2018 (revised version) The process (and associated costs) of returning part or all of a project to a safe and environmentally compliant condition when operations cease. Examples include, but are not limited to, the removal of surface facilities, wellbore plugging procedures, and environmental remediation. In some instances, there may be salvage value associated with the equipment removed from the project. ADR costs are presumed to be without consideration of any salvage value, unless presented as "ADR net of salvage." Arithmetic summation of incremental categories may yield different results from probabilistic aggregation of distributions. Method used in resources estimation in the exploration and early development stages (including improved recovery projects) when direct measurement is limited. Based on evaluator's assessment of similarities of the analogous reservoir(s) together with the development plan.
This page provides a reservoir management case study for a steeply dipping sandstone field in which gravity stable miscible gas injection techniques have been implemented. This field was formed by a piercement salt plug that breached a regional fault system. The reservoir is composed of unconsolidated sands that dip away from the salt dome at 65 to 85 . The reservoir is divided into several fault blocks. Within each block, the sand is relatively homogeneous.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines simulate as assuming the appearance of without the reality. Simulation of petroleum reservoir performance refers to the construction and operation of a model whose behavior assumes the appearance of actual reservoir behavior. The model itself is either physical (for example, a laboratory sandpack) or mathematical. A mathematical model is a set of equations that, subject to certain assumptions, describes the physical processes active in the reservoir. Although the model itself obviously lacks the reality of the reservoir, the behavior of a valid model simulates--assumes the appearance of--the actual reservoir. The purpose of simulation is estimation of field performance (e.g., oil recovery) under one or more producing schemes. Whereas the field can be produced only once, at considerable expense, a model can be produced or run many times at low expense over a short period of time. Observation of model results that represent different producing ...
This page provides a reservoir management case study for a sandstone field under strong waterdrive in which crestal gas injection techniques have been implemented. Production from this field is from several Upper Cretaceous sandstone formations. The producing zones are in pressure communication in the gas cap and aquifer but separate in the oil column. The structure is a complexly faulted anticline with a major fault separating the west and east flanks. There is minor communication across the fault.
If pore volume contraction contributes prominently to overall expansion while the reservoir is saturated, then the reservoir is classified as a compaction drive. Compaction drive oil reservoirs are supplemented by solution gas drive if the reservoir falls below the bubblepoint; they may or may not be supplemented by a water or gas cap drive. Compaction drives characteristically exhibit elevated rock compressibilities, often 10 to 50 times greater than normal. Rock compressibility is called pore volume (PV), or pore, compressibility and is expressed in units of PV change per unit PV per unit pressure change. Rock compressibility is a function of pressure.
The first hydraulic fracturing treatment was pumped in 1947 on a gas well operated by Pan American Petroleum Corp. in the Hugoton field. Kelpper Well No. 1, located in Grant County, Kansas, was a low-productivity well, even though it had been acidized. The well was chosen for the first hydraulic fracture stimulation treatment so that hydraulic fracturing could be compared directly with acidizing. Since that first treatment in 1947, hydraulic fracturing has become a common treatment for stimulating the productivity of oil and gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping fluid into a wellbore at an injection rate that is too high for the formation to accept without breaking.