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This paper presents an analysis of a CO2-foam-injection pilot in the Salt Creek Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. A carbon-dioxide (CO2) -foam enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) pilot research program has been initiated to advance the technology of CO2 foam for mobility control in a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir. Aqueous foam has been demonstrated to have promise in conformance-control applications. This paper explores the foaming behavior of a CO2-soluble, cationic, amine-based surfactant. A growing chorus of suppliers, researchers, and service companies is persuading US operators to re-examine their use of slickwater in shale plays and consider displacing it with carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Thank you for attending the SPE Workshop. Naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs hold a substantial volume of the world’s petroleum reserves and has a long production history. However, description of reservoir flow mechanism has been uncertain. Also, the existing reservoir surveillance tools are unreliable which results in reactive rather than proactive planning. Although significant strides have been made in computational technology, there is still need to accurately represent fracture properties in dynamic models.
Several well-stimulation products and techniques have been seen to benefit well productivity from recent field trials and implementations in carbonate reservoirs, including simpler acid fluid systems, integrated work flows, and coiled-tubing bottomhole assemblies. The fourth industrial revolution is taking the oil and gas business by storm. Many companies have increased resources for big-data analytics and machine learning. Though no one sees physical oilfield services as in decline, development in these areas may take a back seat to artificial intelligence. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%.
Duri Field in Indonesia is the largest active steamflood project in the world. The field produces 73,000 BOPD, and 10,000 optimization jobs are executed annually to support base production. The objective of this study was to look at factors that can affect a temperature log and steps that can be taken to improve temperature-measurement accuracy. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%. The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
The good news is 95% of the oil companies in Texas are expected to survive 2020, which means there is a lot of bad news to endure. Can Regulators Move Fast Enough To Fix a Shattered Market? Texas Railroad commissioners recognize the battering Texas oil companies, and their workers, are taking, but will continue considering their options until 5 May. Even some free-market advocates are calling for regulators to step in and try to help pull them out of what feels like a chasm by setting production limits. As studies point to increased emissions, ExxonMobil is stepping up efforts to detect and mitigate methane release.
SPE events bring together oil and gas professionals from across the globe to discuss technical innovations and advancements in petroleum recovery. A wide variety of SPE events, from international conferences and exhibitions to in-depth workshops, provide opportunities to connect with the latest E&P technologies and network with upstream experts. EVA features and actions for SPE Staff are unavailable because you are signed out. SPE events bring together oil and gas professionals from across the globe to discuss technical innovations and advancements in petroleum recovery. A wide variety of SPE events, from international conferences and exhibitions to in-depth workshops, provide opportunities to connect with the latest E&P technologies and network with upstream experts.
Candidate selection is the process of identifying and selecting wells for stimulation treatment, which have the capacity of production improvement and better economic return. One of the first steps in the candidate selection process is the review of all well logs and records, reservoir characteristics, and any previous workover information. Drilling records are screened for mud type, fluid losses, kill pills, completion fluids, and completion type. Production history also used to detect formation damage in the process of candidate selection. A sudden decline in productivity is a good indication that the well could be damaged; however, the user needs to be aware of the offset wells reservoir properties.
The focus of this workshop is to share knowledge of recent technology advances in acid stimulation of carbonate reservoirs among industry experts, researchers and completion engineers. Acid stimulation; both matrix acidizing and acid fracturing are common methods applied worldwide to enhance well productivity and establish economic well and field success. Many questions and factors are considered today in the selection of acidizing fluids, additives and treatment designs in both matrix and fracturing of well candidates. The understanding on the fundamentals in worm hole propagation and efficiency has been gained through extensive large-block experiments and interpretation of field-scale treatment responses. Meanwhile, improved modelling of both matrix and fracturing treatments by the integration of field performances and updated research data have been achieved.
Can Regulators Move Fast Enough To Fix a Shattered Market? Texas Railroad commissioners recognize the battering Texas oil companies, and their workers, are taking, but will continue considering their options until 5 May. Even some free-market advocates are calling for regulators to step in and try to help pull them out of what feels like a chasm by setting production limits. As studies point to increased emissions, ExxonMobil is stepping up efforts to detect and mitigate methane release. Is Depression-Era Production Regulation What OPEC Really Wants To See?
Most wells in carbonate reservoirs are stimulated. Because of their low cost and simpler operations, acid-stimulation methods are usually preferred if they are sufficient. Matrix acidizing can effectively stimulate carbonate reservoirs, often resulting in skin factors on the order of –3 to –4. In low confining stress and hard rocks, acid fracturing can yield better results than matrix acidizing. However, acid fracturing is less effective in high permeability, high confining stress, or soft rocks. There is a combination of parameters, among them permeability, confining stress, and rock geomechanical properties, that can be used as criteria to decide whether matrix acidizing or acid fracturing is the best acid-stimulation technique for a given scenario.
This study compares the productivity of matrix-acidized and acid-fractured wells in carbonate reservoirs. The criterion used to decide the preferred method is the largest productivity obtained using the same volume of acid for both operations. The productivity of the acid-fractured wells is estimated using a fully coupled acid-fracturing simulator, which integrates the geomechanics (fracture propagation), pad and acid transport, heat transfer, temperature effect on reaction rate, effect of wormhole propagation on acid leakoff, and finally calculates the well productivity by simulating the flow in the reservoir toward the acid fracture. Using this simulator, the acid-fracturing operation is optimized, resulting in the operational conditions (injection rate, type of fluid, amount of pad, and so forth) that lead to the best possible acid fracture that can be created with a given amount of acid. The productivity of the matrix-acidized wells is estimated using the most recent wormhole-propagation models scaled up to field conditions.
Results are presented for different types of rock and reservoir scenarios, such as shallow and deep reservoirs, soft and hard limestones, chalks, and dolomites. Most of the presented results considered vertical wells. A theoretical extension to horizontal wells is also presented using analytical considerations. For each type of reservoir rock and confining stress, there is a cutoff permeability less than which acid fracturing results in a more productive well; at higher than this cutoff permeability, matrix acidizing should be preferred. This result agrees with the general industry practice, and the estimated productivity agrees with the results obtained in the field. However, the value of the cutoff permeability changes for each case, and simple equations for calculating it are presented. For example, for harder rocks or shallower reservoirs, acid fracturing is more efficient up to higher permeabilities than in softer rocks or at deeper depths.
This method provides an engineered criterion to decide the best acid-stimulation method for a given carbonate reservoir. The decision criterion is presented for several different scenarios. A simplified concise analytical decision criterion is also presented: a single dimensionless number that incorporates all pertinent reservoir properties and determines which stimulation method yields the most productive well, without needing any simulations.