Well interference in unconventional CBM reservoirs is often desired. It reduces reservoir pressure; significantly increasing gas production through desorption. However, identifying interference between wells and extracting quantitative reservoir information using production data analysis is a challenge. The primary objectives of this study are to identify production characteristics of interfering CBM wells, evaluate reservoir parameters, demonstrate the application of interference data using field examples to predict well performance and develop guidelines to optimize geospatial well-pattern.
A field wide interference study has been undertaken to track changes in gas rate, water rate, wellhead pressure and fluid level in each well. An ‘event-based’ filter is applied to the dataset to correlate production behaviour of a well with any unplanned ‘event’ in its offset well. Planned well tests are then conducted to ascertain these evidences of interference. Using production data analysis of interfering wells, a set of semi-analytical correlations have been developed based on the transient drainage radius model to determine production-governing permeability of coal formation, and also quantify the flow contribution of natural fractures and reservoir matrix.
Preliminary analysis of the study demonstrates several forms of interference. Well specific field examples have been presented for each case. Interference between producing wells having long production history show a trend reversal in gas flow rate due to additional dewatering support by its offset well. Similar behaviour is observed in the production characteristics of an old producer when a new well is drilled in a nearby location. However, effects of interference are more dominant when a well stimulation activity (fracturing or re-fracturing) is carried out in an offset well. During stimulation activity, offset wells show an abnormal decline in gas rate and wellhead pressure due to fracking fluid (water) load up in the reservoir. Conversely, a significant positive impact is seen in gas rate of both wells after the well is put back on production due to improved water production rate in the stimulated well. Permeability calculations show that natural and artificial fractures dominate production behaviour of CBM wells. The study also presents results of various simulated geo-spatial well patterns. Furthermore, it is shown that planned interference at an early time with an economically designed well spacing can maximize the production NPV of an asset for an operator.
The optimal well spacing to maintain and/or increase gas production with the right amount of resources is critical for maximised returns. This result of this study can be used as foundation to help operators optimize multi-well pad and future infill well development program based on the assessment of short-term and long-term recovery targets.
Unconventional oil and gas reservoirs are being explored significantly around the globe nowadays. The economical production of hydrocarbons from these unconventional oil and gas reservoirs like CBM requires very advanced and cost effective technologies. Hydraulic fracturing is such a technology which is being used in the oil and gas industry for many decades to create highly conductive channels in the formations having very low permeability values. Multistage hydraulic fracturing has been proved to be a great achievement in oil and gas industry to enhance the production from unconventional reservoirs. An effective hydraulic fracturing planning & execution is a key to achieve the expected results in terms of production from unconventional reservoirs such as tight gas, shale gas, coal bed methane or other very low permeability reservoirs.
Unconventional reservoirs such as Shale & CBM require large scale hydraulic fracturing operations, where multiple frac fleets, wire-line units, coiled tubing units; work-over rigs & ancillary services are mobilized. A scheduling software based project management approach was followed at CBM Raniganj for planning & modeling of operations. This paper aims to study how the operational resource deployed in Raniganj field for hydraulic fracturing was optimized in terms of time, cost & load for fracturing operations.
The approach of modeling & planning the hydraulic fracturing operations is based on project management & scheduling software. Assumptions were finalized based on experience. The loopholes, possible schedule slippages and other deterrents which could cause a lag in the hydro fracturing campaign aimed to pump over 1,600 frac jobs in CBM Raniganj field, over a period of 30 rig months, were identified clearly. The scope, time, budget & quality standards were clearly defined and a schedule was prepared with the help of the scheduling software to run the fleets in a clockwork manner. Activities like perforation, Acidizing, data fracturing, main fracturing, flowback, sand plug and finally sand cleanout were defined as series & simultaneous operation.
Sun, Zheng (China University of Petroleum at Beijing, Texas A&M University) | Shi, Juntai (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Wu, Keliu (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Gong, Dahong (CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited Directional Well Technology Services Branch) | Peng, Hui (CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited Mud Logging 2) | Hou, Yuhua (NO.2 Logging Branch of Bohai Drilling Engineering Co., Ltd., PetroChina Group) | Ma, Hongyan (CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited Directional Well Technology Services Branch) | Wang, Daning (CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited Directional Well Technology Services Branch) | Ramachandran, Hariharan (The University of Texas at Austin) | Liu, Yisheng (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Liu, Wenyuan (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Wang, Suran (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Li, Xiangfang (China University of Petroleum at Beijing)
With respect to the sharp increase in population all around the world, more and more energy and fuels are expected to achieve the counterbalance between supply and demand. Deeply attracted by its considerable and prospect recovery reserve, the exploitation, development and related research contents regarding coalbed methane (CBM), i.e., one of the unconventional gas reservoirs, are currently heat and essential topics. Without any doubt, precise determination of coal permeability will dramatically contribute to the development efficiency of CBM reservoirs. It should be noted that the permeability in CBM reservoirs possesses unique heterogeneous characteristics, especially for the different permeability at directions of face cleats and butt cleats, which will inevitably result in greatly shape-change for fluid flow field and eventually the production performance. To my best knowledge, nearly all the previous methods proposed for evaluating coal permeability assume the homogeneous permeability feature in CBM reservoirs, which show fairly great discrepancy compared with that of the realistic situation. In this work, in order to address this urgent issue, a novel permeability evaluation method is developed for the first time, which is able to generate precisely heterogeneous characteristics of coal permeability based on the water production rate versus production time curve at the early production stage. First of all, considering both orthotropic heterogeneous permeability and pressure propagation behavior in CBM reservoirs, single water phase productivity equation is seriously derived. Secondly, for simply usage purpose in field application, the obtained equation is transformed through linearization treat. Finally, combining the water production performance with the linearized equation, efficient iteration calculation procedures are given to determine the heterogeneous permeability feature. Also, the skin factor of corresponding CBM well can be determined. The applicability and accuracy of the proposed method have been successfully verified through field application. In sum, the proposed method can serve as a simple as well as an accurate tool to determine the crucial heterogeneous permeability feature in CBM reservoirs. More importantly, during the determination process, the method just requires the water production performance at the early production stage, which means that the obtained permeability characteristics can be utilized to guide production strategy adjustment in the following gas production stage. As a result, the proposed method can be regarded as a necessary preparatory work before gas production takes place in CBM reservoirs, which will play a positive and active role in optimization of ultimate gas recovery and well configuration.
This paper attempts to use analogs of coals and Coal bed Methane (CBM) properties in Sedimentary basins to mutual advantage from the knowledge of each other.
An attempt has been made here to showcase as to why two Coal bearing formations, Lower Eocene, Cambay in India and Miocene, South Sumatra, Indonesia can be compared with each other in terms of coal quality and CBM characteristics.
Cambay basin, with an area of 56,000 sq kms is an elongated NNW-SSE rift basin in the western part of India. The basin fill comprises Mesozoic(?) sediments capped by Late Cretaceous Deccan volcanics and a thick tertiary pile of fluvio deltaics. Thick Lignite to sub bituminous coal is found in Middle (two thick seams) and Lower Eocene section (three thick seams of 20-35 m range and one thin seam of 1-10m). Chemically, the Middle Eocene lignite-sub bituminous coal is characteristically low in moisture (4-5%), quite low in ash (1-11%) and high in volatiles (43-55%). The Lower Eocene coals are sub bituminous with 10-20% moisture, low ash(5-10%), low Sulphur(<1%) content. The gas content of the Lower Eocene coals are 6 cubic metre / tonnne, with permeability 1-3 Md with seams slightly over pressured. Depth ranges of both these coal horizons are between1000-1800m approximately.
South Sumatra basin, double in size wrt Cambay basin with an area of 100,000 sq kms, is a NE-SW trending, backarc basin. Series of half grabens punctuated with basement highs, holds Miocene and Eocene Coals in the grabens of a mostly Tertiary sedimentary pile. The Miocene coals (formed in tide dominated coastal plain) are sub bituminous, with VRo 0.4-0.5, low ash(<10%), Moisture(10-18%), high volatile matter of around 40% at depths 300-1000m, with 20-30 seams with gas content of 7 cubic metre / tonne. The Older Eocene Coals are1-10 m thick at depths 1000-2000m formed in peat bogs in fluvial settings.
The Indonesian Coals of Miocene age are very comparable in coal properties and gas content to the Middle and Lower Eocene Coals of Cambay basin and can supplement each other in studies for CBM exploration and exploitation. Of great similarity are the coal quality, ash% and gas content. To take the comparisons further ahead, detailing of thickness, extent, geometry and depositional environments of each of these basins would be advantageous.
Paddy cultivation contributes 12% of the total methane emitted in the environment by various sources. At EOGEPL, Systematic Rice Intensification (SRI) has been introduced among the paddy farmers which not only increased their crops’ yield but also controlled the emission of methane directly into atmosphere.
CBM Development requires numerous parcels of land. The farmers who were apprehensive about selling land for the CBM project, or those who were trying to get rid of their land as farming did not seem a good enough source of income, were targeted for this project. Training on the SRI method was conducted along with education on the benefits of the system from a farmer's perspective. In addition, the beneficiaries were given support in the form of seeds, rudimentary machinery and SOS medicines, required for the paddy farming.
The result was awakening for the farmers. In comparison to the traditional method the yield of paddy increased from minimum 37% to maximum 83%, resulting in an increase net income of the farming community. The success factor for EOGEPL, was that by working with 37 farmers on total land area of 4.99 hectare, 45.37 tons of methane emission was controlled. It could be concluded from this project that, the SRI method has the capacity to address 3 major aspects of the modern day. At a time when due to increase of population per head availability of food grain is decreasing, SRI method can double the yield on the same area available. In addition, with decrease in required inputs i.e. the investment and growth of marketable output i.e. yield, the net income of the farmer increases. Most importantly, the practice of SRI controls methane emission which is responsible for greenhouse effect.
The additive information in this paper is that, a single move of SRI practice can address very important problems associated with a CBM-Project and can contribute to the nationwide movement of developing a clean environment and increasing the availability of food grain for the future with increase income to farmers.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the Bottom hole Pressure (BHP) from water level and other available parameters in CBM wells by (a) calibrating the dynamic water level (b) surveying the available literature (c) testing and comparing different models for wells in CBM Sohagpur field which have bottom hole gauges (d) selecting an appropriate model and finalizing the algorithm to estimate the BHP with reasonable accuracy and (e) automating the process to calculate the estimated BHP. We have proposed a method for calibrating the water level taken by echo meter by calculating the acoustic velocity for actual conditions prevalent in a CBM well. We have then estimated the BHP for 3 wells of CBM Sohagpur field, operated by Reliance Industries limited in India, with the help of calibrated water level and other parameters using 4 different models (Podio, Godbey & Dimon, Gilbert models and Rashid Hasan, C. Shah Kabir and Rehana Rahman model) and compared the results of those models with the actual BHP provided by the bottom hole gauges The algorithm when used with Rashid Hasan, C. Shah Kabir and Rehana Rahman model gave more accurate results irrespective of the production parameter in CBM wells. A maximum error of 3% and minimum error of 0.5% was observed in Rashid Hasan, C. Shah Kabir and Rehana Rahman model while the other models gave up to 25% error. Thus, we have finalized the algorithm to be used for estimation of BHP with minimal error in our case and we have automated the process which has helped the operator in calculating the estimated BHP from other parameters very easily. We have proposed a method for calibration of water level for actual conditions, which is necessary to arrive at correct BHP, tested different models available for calculation of BHP for CBM wells and compared the results. We have proposed an algorithm for calculation of BHP from water level and other parameters in CBM wells and automated the process which has helped the operator immensely in optimizing the dewatering operation and improving the production forecasts.
Sun, Zheng (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing)) | Shi, Juntai (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing)) | Wu, Keliu (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing)) | Zhang, Tao (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing)) | Feng, Dong (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing)) | Li, Xiangfang (MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing))
Low-permeability coalbed-methane (CBM) reservoirs possess unique pressure-propagation behavior, which can be classified further as the expansion characteristics of the drainage area and the desorption area [i.e., a formation in which the pressure is lower than the initial formation pressure and critical-desorption pressure (CDP), respectively]. Inevitably, several fluid-flow mechanisms will coexist in realistic coal seams at a certain production time, which is closely related to dynamic pressure and saturation distribution. To the best of our knowledge, a production-prediction model for CBM wells considering pressure-propagation behavior is still lacking. The objective of this work is to perform extensive investigations into the effect of pressure-propagation behavior on the gas-production performance of CBM wells. First, the pressure-squared approach is used to describe the pressure profile in the desorption area, which has been clarified as an effective-approximation method. Also, the pressure/saturation relationship that was developed in our previous research is used; therefore, saturation distribution can be obtained. Second, an efficient iteration algorithm is established to predict gas-production performance by combining a new gas-phase-productivity equation and a material-balance equation. Finally, using the proposed prediction model, we shed light on the optimization method for production strategy regarding the entire production life of CBM wells. Results show that the decrease rate of bottomhole pressure (BHP) should be slow at the water single-phase-flow stage, fast at the early gas/water two-phase-flow stage, and slow at the late gas/water two-phase-flow stage, which is referred to as the slow/fast/slow (SFS) control method. Remarkably, in the SFS control method, the decrease rate of the BHP at each period can be quantified on the basis of the proposed prediction model. To examine the applicability of the proposed SFS method, it is applied to an actual CBM well in Hancheng Field, China, and it enhances the cumulative gas production by a factor of approximately 1.65.
Zhu, Qingzhong (PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Yang, Yanhui (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Chen, Longwei (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Wang, Yuting (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Chen, Biwu (CBM Exploration and Development Division, PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Liu, Chunli (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Zhang, Chen (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Wang, Xiaoxuan (Exploration and Development Research Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company)
In order to solve the problems of poor adaptability of reservoir stimulation technology and low gas production of single well in high-rank coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir, a new concept of "methane-leading" reservoir stimulation technology and the corresponding technology method system are put forward. The concept of "methane-leading" reservoir stimulation technology emphasizes the complexity of the coal reservoir and the energy releasing process in the coalbed methane development. Through targeted artificial stimulation, a multi-stage interconnected fracture network system is built to reduce seepage resistance and finally improve the gas production of single well. The characteristics of coal reservoir and problems of traditional stimulation technology are analyzed in this paper. And the "methane-leading" reservoir stimulation technology focus on the optimization of the "sweet section", the release of injected energy and the expansion of area stimulated by the fracture network. The application results in the CBM field in the south of Qinshui basin, Shanxi Province, China, shows that the gas production of a single vertical well is more than twice that of an old well in the same area, reaching 2500~3000 m3/d and the average gas production per horizontal well is over 10000 m3/d, indicating a good application prospect. The innovation of this paper lies in that a new concept of "methane-leading" reservoir stimulation technology and the corresponding technology method with CBM characteristics are put forward. It provides new ideas and methods for effectively improving the gas production capacity of CBM single well, realizing efficient development of high-rank CBM and promoting the healthy development of CBM industry.
Qiu, Maoxin (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | Zhang, Huazhen (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | Zhang, Huanzhi (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | Liu, Jia (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | He, Yanqing (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | Wang, Lu (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute) | Zhang, Jiaming (CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute)
The development of China's coalbed methane (CBM) industry is restricted by the complex geological conditions, unmatched technology and lack of development experience. To solve this problem, a case library covering typical CBM fields at home and abroad is established. Through data analysis and mining, the differences between domestic and foreign CBM fields are compared and the influence factors of CBM single well production were analyzed.
This study includes the data preparation of CBM fields, the establishment of the case library system, the establishment of data analysis model and the result analysis. The data of case library covers the geological conditions, development history, main technology and economy of CBM field. The case library is based on the MVC development idea and adopts the object-oriented method. The analysis of data includes correlation analysis of single well production and quantitative gap analysis.
The case library contains a number of typical case data, such as San Juan, Black warrior, Bowen, Surat, Qinshui, Hancheng, etc. The relevant parameters of different CBM fields can be quickly compared by using the case library. By mining the data such as coal rank, permeability, thickness, depth, gas content and proved reserves, the influence factors of single well production of CBM well are analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the thickness and permeability of coal seam have the greatest influence on single well production. Quantitative gap analysis shows that there is a large gap between the coal seam thickness, permeability, the gas drainage technology and well production improvement technology of domestic CBM fields compared with the foreign fields with the best development effect.
Through the application of CBM case library, data is analyzed and utilized effectively and data values are fully exploited. This study provides an effective way to analyze the gap of CBM in China and draw lessons from abroad.
Wang, Xin (Key Laboratory of Reservoir Stimulation, CNPC Fracturing&Acidizing Technical Service Center, RIPED, CNPC) | Zhu, Qingzhong (PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Zheng, Wei (Key Laboratory of Reservoir Stimulation, CNPC Fracturing&Acidizing Technical Service Center, RIPED, CNPC) | Lu, Haibing (Key Laboratory of Reservoir Stimulation, CNPC Fracturing&Acidizing Technical Service Center, RIPED, CNPC)
China has abundant low-rank coalbed methane resources. The research object is the low rank lignite seams in Jiergalangtu Sag in Erlian Basin. The reservoir has low porosity and low permeability, and it has no natural productivity. The coal seams have a burial depth of 200-600 meters, thickness of 40-60 meters, and Ro of 0.32% to 0.47%. Borrowing the idea of well completion experience for the conventional low rank coal seams in the region, open hole cavity completion techniques were adopted in two wells, obtaining an output of only about 150 m3/d. The conventional active water fracturing was also tested in another well, and the output after fracturing was 200-300 m3/d. The effect of stimulation was very poor, which limited commercial exploitation activities in the region. This paper introduces two techniques to improve the effect of stimulation by improving induced fracture extension and supporting capacity in the coal seams, including the hydraulic blasting & grouting caving fracturing technique and the reverse compound fracturing technique, which were applied in two wells. A constant rate of production after fracturing reached 1,500-2,000m3/d, which was well above the lower limit output of economic exploitation in the region of 600m3/d. Exciting results were obtained. The exploration of these techniques is of great significance for low rank coalbed methane stimulation, which can help us to implement effective fracturing stimulation operation in low rank coal seams to obtain the best production effect.