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There are many advantages of developing transient flow solutions in the Laplace transform domain. For example, in the Laplace transform domain, Duhamel's theorem provides a convenient means of developing transient flow solutions for variable rate production problems using the solutions for the corresponding constant rate production problem. Applying the Laplace transform converts the convolution integral in Eq. 1 to an algebraic expression, and Duhamel's theorem is given in the Laplace transform domain as The simplicity of the expression given in Eq. 2 explains our interest in obtaining transient-flow solutions in the Laplace transform domain. Another example to explain the convenience of the Laplace domain solutions is for the naturally fractured reservoirs. Common transient flow models of naturally fractured reservoirs lead to the following differential equation in radial coordinates in the Laplace transform domain:  The naturally fractured reservoir function, f (s), is a function of matrix and fracture properties and depends on the model chosen to represent the naturally fractured reservoir. The general solutions for Eqs. 3 and 4 are given, respectively, by This discussion demonstrates that it is possible to derive transient flow solutions for naturally fractured reservoirs by following the same lines as those for the homogeneous reservoirs. Furthermore, if the solution for the corresponding homogeneous reservoir system is known in the Laplace transform domain, then the solution for the naturally fractured reservoir problem may be directly obtained from Eq. 9. Obtaining the Laplace transforms of the Green's and source function solutions developed in the time domain with the methods explained on the Source function solutions of the diffusion equation and Solving unsteady flow problems with Green's and source functions pages usually poses a difficult problem.
The first hydraulic fracturing treatment was pumped in 1947 on a gas well operated by Pan American Petroleum Corp. in the Hugoton field. Kelpper Well No. 1, located in Grant County, Kansas, was a low-productivity well, even though it had been acidized. The well was chosen for the first hydraulic fracture stimulation treatment so that hydraulic fracturing could be compared directly with acidizing. Since that first treatment in 1947, hydraulic fracturing has become a common treatment for stimulating the productivity of oil and gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping fluid into a wellbore at an injection rate that is too high for the formation to accept without breaking.
Designing an acid-fracturing treatment is similar to designing a fracturing treatment with a propping agent. Williams, et al. presents a thorough explanation of the fundamentals concerning acid fracturing. The main difference between acid fracturing and proppant fracturing is the way fracture conductivity is created. In proppant fracturing, a propping agent is used to prop open the fracture after the treatment is completed. In acid fracturing, acid is used to "etch" channels in the rock that comprise the walls of the fracture.
The operator's first successful installation of fishbone stimulation technology was aimed at establishing vertical communication between layers in a tight carbonate reservoir and maximizing the reservoir contact. Furthermore, the advanced stimulation technology connects natural fractures within the reservoir, bypasses near-wellbore damage, and allows the thin sublayers to produce. This technology requires running standard lower-completion tubing with fishbone subs preloaded with 40-ft needles and stimulation with the rig on site. The operator plans to develop tight carbonate reservoirs as part of its production growth strategy. Field Q is a 35 15‑km field under development with a phased approach.
Abstract Objectives/Scope A case study is presented detailing the methodology used to place a non-damaging temporary isolation barrier in a group of naturally fractured, prolific gas wells in a field in Kurdistan. The temporary isolation facilitated removal of the original completion string and installation of the redesign. Wells were returned to production with-out the need to stimulate proving success of the non-damaging methodology employed. Methods, Procedures, Process The operator had 4 wells with OH sections ranging from 33-181m which were completed in the 1980’s - 1990's with no production packer. In order to preserve well bore integrity the completion string needed to be pulled and replaced by a string with production packer and DH gauges. A procedure was developed to fill the highly fractured OH with a mixed particle size CaCO3 carried into the wellbore by a non-damaging surfactant based gel. Caliper logs were not available and the presence of natural fractures posed a challenge to calculating the actual OH volume. A system was developed to carry the CaCO3 into the wellbore in stages and slickline was employed to measure fill after each stage. Once the OH was filled with CaCO3 and well would support a fluid column coil tubing was used to place an acid soluble cement plug in the short interval between casing shoe and end of tubing (8-10m) Results, Observations, Conclusions The first well in the campaign required more than 10 times the theoretical volume of CaCO3 to fill the open hole. It was concluded the surfactant gel was likely carrying the CaCO3 into the fractures. The procedure was modified to tie in a line of breaker solution to the well head allowing sufficient viscosity of the fluid to carry the CaCO3 from surface but immediately lose viscosity and allow the CaCO3 to settle in the wellbore without being carried into the formation. Specific coil tubing procedures were employed to allow the setting of ultra-short acid soluble cement plugs (<10m). All wells were successfully isolated to allow the safe workover of the completion string and returned to production with no loss of gas flow, with-out the need to stimulate after the work over. Novel/Additive Information The campaign exhibited a new method of employing existing technologies to achieve the objective in a highly challenging and relatively new oilfield of Kurdistan. The campaign also demonstrated the benefit of the operator and service company closely collaborating on each step of a novel process. The workovers would not have been successful with-out the close collaboration of the two companies.
Sosio, Giovanni (Schlumberger) | Mandiuc, Andreia (Schlumberger) | Campana, Annalisa (Schlumberger) | Vidal, Jeanne (Universidad de Chile) | Hehn, Régis (GéoPlusEnvironnement) | Baujard, Clément (ÉS Géothermie)
Abstract The Exploitation de la Chaleur d’Origine Géothermique pour l’Industrie (ECOGI) site lies in a deep geothermal doublet in Rittershoffen (Alsace, Eastern France), producing heat for an industrial plant. The two wells, GRT-1 and GRT-2, targeted local natural fracture zones in the vicinity of a large normal fault across the Buntsandstein sediments and the granitic basement at a depth of 2,000 m below surface. An extensive measurement campaign was carried out in both wells by means of wireline logging. Pressure and temperature logs, nuclear logs (density and porosity), resistivity logs, dipole sonic logs, and wellbore image logs were acquired in the open hole over the target fractured aquifer and partially across the overburden. These logs were processed and interpreted to build an integrated model of the site, describing its geological properties, notably the fracture network, its dynamic behavior in terms of fluid and heat flow, and its geomechanical properties. Wellbore imaging results from acoustics imagers were interpreted to understand the geometry of the natural fracture network, which acts as the main fluid pathway in the Rittershoffen geothermal system. The results were integrated with temperature logging to understand which fractures were open and therefore cooling down when invaded by the drilling mud. Density and sonic logs were used to derive the mechanical properties of the near-wellbore rock and the stress magnitudes; the interpretation of drilling-induced features in the wellbore images allowed determining the orientation of the local stress acting on the wellbore. The geomechanical model obtained was used to predict the occurrence of mechanical or hydraulic instability along the well and compare the prediction with the events actually observed in the well, providing a validation of the geomechanical model. The results of well-centric fracture and geomechanical analysis were integrated in a 3D reservoir model and used to understand the performance and the risks associated with geothermal operations at the site.
Dashti, Jalal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Bader (Kuwait Oil Company) | Farwan, Hawas (Kuwait Oil Company) | Shoeibi, Ahmad (Geolog International B.V.) | Sanclemente, Milton (Geolog International B.V.) | Martocchi, Alberto (Geolog International B.V.) | Russo, Eliana R. (Geolog International B.V.)
Abstract The economic feasibility of a well drilled in tight carbonates is extremely dependent on the level of fracture permeability; hard and dense carbonate formations may not be considered as net pay without the presence of fractures. The evaluation of fractures is a key to reservoir effectiveness characterization for well drilling, completion, development and stimulation of fractured reservoirs. While knowledge of the geological conditions and regional stress is helpful to estimate the characteristics of the natural fracture system in a given reservoir, the true extent of the natural open fracture system in any specific location is typically unknown. Several methods are available to the industry to identify natural fractures near the wellbore, including acoustic and resistivity image logs. In some cases, the poor-quality results of these techniques do not provide reliable information and such data cannot be available in all the wells. When minor downhole losses are accurately detected, it is possible to locate and characterize the natural open fractures intersected by the drill bit while drilling operations. The differential flow (Flow-out minus Flow-in) and the Active Volume System are continually monitored during drilling and integrated with drilling and hydraulic parameters. These readings are processed in a computer-based, data-acquisition system to form a compensated delta-flow signal that identifies the occurrence of downhole fluid losses. The differential flow is measured accurately through a dedicated Coriolis type flow-meter with a Limit Of Detection up to 10 l/min. By accurately detecting and measuring the downhole micro-losses instantaneously at the surface, the responses would be compared to predefined models for fracture characterization; that enables identification of different types of fractures (open natural, induced fractures). The system can detect very fine micro-fractures that might not be visible with wireline images; fracture density plots can then be created to highlight the fracture concentration along the well. Drilling deep wells in Kuwait is challenging due to high pressure, high-temperature formations, with the Bottom Hole Pressure of +15kpsi and Bottom Hole Temperature of +150 Centigrade degrees. In conventional surface systems, the loss detection relies on the Active Volume System and the Paddle type Flow-out sensor; however, these systems usually fail to identify the minor mud losses associated to open fractures. Especially for active pits with a big surface, it is almost impossible to identify few millimetres of mud level decrease and during fluid transfers, mud conditioning will make the job even more difficult to identify minor losses. With flow paddle type of sensors, the flow out information is not displayed as a calibrated value but rather as a percentage of full scale, which can be difficult to interpret. Instead, dedicated Coriolis type flowmeters properly installed, can identify flow rate changes accurately, regardless of any transfer of mud, water or diesel between pits. By applying this technique, it is possible to identify fractures while drilling in different types of wells, such as vertical, highly deviated and horizontal. The data were validated initially through core and image logs and further applied in next drilling campaigns.
Suarez-Rivera, Roberto (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Panse, Rohit (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Sovizi, Javad (Baker Hughes) | Dontsov, Egor (ResFrac Corporation) | LaReau, Heather (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Suter, Kirke (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Blose, Matthew (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Hailu, Thomas (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Koontz, Kyle (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.)
Abstract Predicting fracture behavior is important for well placement design and for optimizing multi-well development production. This requires the use of fracturing models that are calibrated to represent field measurements. However, because hydraulic fracture models include complex physics and uncertainties and have many variables defining these, the problem of calibrating modeling results with field responses is ill-posed. There are more model variables than can be changed than field observations to constrain these. It is always possible to find a calibrated model that reproduces the field data. However, the model is not unique and multiple matching solutions exist. The objective and scope of this work is to define a workflow for constraining these solutions and obtaining a more representative model for forecasting and optimization. We used field data from a multi-pad project in the Delaware play, with actual pump schedules, frac sequence, and time delays as used in the field, for all stages and all wells. We constructed a hydraulic fracturing model using high-confidence rock properties data and calibrated the model to field stimulation treatment data varying the two model variables with highest uncertainty: tectonic strain and average leak-off coefficient, while keeping all other model variables fixed. By reducing the number of adjusting model variables for calibration, we significantly lower the potential for over-fitting. Using an ultra-fast hydraulic fracturing simulator, we solved a global optimization problem to minimize the mismatch between the ISIPs and treatment pressures measured in the field and simulated by the model, for all the stages and all wells. This workflow helps us match the dominant ISIP trends in the field data and delivers higher confidence predictions in the regional stress. However, the uncertainty in the fracture geometry is still large. We also compared these results with traditional workflows that rely on selecting representative stages for calibration to field data. Results show that our workflow defines a better global optimum that best represents the behavior of all stages on all wells, and allows us to provide higher-confidence predictions of fracturing results for subsequent pads. We then used this higher confidence model to conduct sensitivity analysis for improving the well placement in subsequent pads and compared the results of the model predictions with the actual pad results.
Brinkley, Kourtney (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Chapman, Philip (Devon Energy) | Baker, Scott (Devon Energy) | Hart, Eric (Devon Energy) | Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy)
Abstract This case study details the use of Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) to improve the characterization of fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation of inter-connected stacked pay in the South Texas Eagle Ford Shale. The SWPM workflow utilizes surface pressure gauges to detect hydraulically induced fracture arrivals athorizontal monitor locations adjacent to the stimulated wellbore (Haustveit et al. 2020). A stacked and staggered development in Dewitt County provided the opportunity to jointly evaluateprimary completion and recompletion efforts spanning three reservoir target intervals. Fivemonitor wells at varying distances across the unit were employed for SWPM during the stimulation of four wells. An operational overview, analysis of techniques, correlation with seismic attributes, image log interpretations, and fracture model calibration are provided. Outputs from this workflow allow for a refined analysis ofthe overall completion strategy. The high-density, five well monitor array recorded a total of 160 fracture arrivals at varying vertical and lateral distances, with far-field fracture arrivalsprovidingsignificant insight into propagation rates and geometry. Apronounced trend occurred in both arrival frequency and volumes pumped as monitor locations increased in distance from the treatment well. Specific to target zone isolation, it was identified that traversing vertically in section through a high stress interval yielded a 30% reduction inarrival frequency. An indirect relationship between horizontal distance and arrival frequency was also observed when monitoring from the same interval. A decrease in fracture arrivals from 70% down to 8% was realized as offset distance increased from 120 to 1,700 ft. The results from this study have proven to be instrumental in guiding interdisciplinary discussion. Assessing fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation, particularly in the co-development of a stacked pay reservoir, is paramount to the determination of proper completion volume, perforation design, and well spacing. Leveraging the observations of SWPM ultimately provides greater confidence in field development strategy and economic optimization.
Abstract A breakthrough patent-pending pressure diagnostic technique using offset sealed wellbores as monitoring sources was introduced at the 2020 Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference. This technique quantifies various hydraulic fracture parameters using only a surface gauge mounted on the sealed wellbore(s). The initial concept, operational processes, and analysis techniques were developed and deployed by Devon Energy. By scaling and automating the process, Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) is now available to the industry as a repeatable workflow that greatly reduces analysis time and improves visualizations to aid data interpretations. The authors successfully automated the SWPM analysis procedure using a cloud-based software platform designed to ingest, process, and analyze high-frequency hydraulic fracturing data. The minimum data for the analysis consists of the standard frac treatment data combined with the high-resolution pressure gauge data for each sealed wellbore. The team developed machine learning algorithms to identify the key events required by a sealed wellbore pressure analysis: the start, end, and magnitude of each pressure response detected in the sealed wellbore(s) while actively fracturing offset wells. The result is a rapid, repeatable SWPM analysis that minimizes individual interpretation biases. The primary deliverables from SWPM analyses are the Volumes to First Response (VFR) on a per stage basis. In many projects, multiple pressure responses within a single stage have been observed, which provides valuable insight into fracture network complexity and cluster/stage efficiency. Various methods are used to visualize and statistically analyze the data. A scalable process facilitates creating a statistical database for comparing completion designs that can be segmented by play, formation, or other geological variations. Completion designs can then be optimized based upon the observed well responses. With enough observations and based on certain spacings, probabilities of when to expect fracture interactions could be assigned for different plays.