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Well preparation includes many activities to ensure that the well is completed properly. Some of these items and activities include appropriate drilling practices, cleanliness, completion fluids, perforating, perforation cleaning, acidizing, and/or specifications for rig and service company personnel. The productivity of a cased- or openhole gravel-packed completion is determined in part by the condition of the reservoir behind the filter cake, the quality of the filter cake, and the stability of the wellbore. Given this, it can be said that the completion begins when the bit enters the pay. Thus, it follows that the goal of drilling is to maintain wellbore stability while minimizing formation damage. But, for whatever reason, instability affects both cased- and openhole completions because it can cause loss of the wellbore. Thick cement sheaths in washed-out sections result in poor to no perforation penetration and the lack of cement can make sand placement difficult. Hole collapse can prevent running screens to the bottom of the hole. Failure, in the form of fracturing or collapse, can stop an openhole gravel pack, should failure occur while the pack is in process.
The definition of a tight gas reservoir is that the reservoir does not produce at commercial gas flow rates, or recover commercial volumes of natural gas, unless a hydraulic-fracture treatment is properly designed and pumped. As such, the entire drilling and completion procedures should focus on making sure the optimum fracture treatment can be designed and pumped in the field. When drilling a tight gas well, the most important aspect of the drilling operation is to drill a gauge hole. Many times this means the well should be drilled at a balanced mud weight or slightly overbalanced. In other cases, air drilling or underbalanced drilling works best, as long as the hole remains in gauge.
In earlier days, the main technology developments were mostly related to the materials, such as fluids and proppants, and their characterizations. In recent years, more advancements have been made in tools, engineering processes, and analyses. In a cased-hole fracturing treatment, perforating plays a critical role to the success of the job, though it is often overlooked because perforations are visualized as holes with empty tunnel behind the pipe. Any damage is irrelevant because fracturing will simply bypass the damage. In fact, a shaped charge is made of metal liner and case with explosive loaded in between.
One of the important factors affecting the near-wellbore-fluid pressure drop is the coefficient of discharge (Cd). In the complete paper, the authors investigate some of the factors that can affect Cd, such as the erosion of the perforated hole and the backpressure given by the fracture. The paper studies the effect of perforation hole size, geometry, and shape on the Cd value at ambient conditions and with backpressure, before and after sand erosion. For this study, a high-pressure, high-flow setup was built for Cd measurements, as well as a second setup in which the holes can be eroded by proppant-laden slurries. The test cell was the same for both setups.
Initially, the technique was developed as a means for conveying the gun string on the production tubing, with the guns remaining in the well until they are removed during the first workover. The subsequent popularity of highly deviated and horizontal wells increased the requirement for tubing-conveyed perforating as the only means of gaining access to the perforating depth. The term is often abbreviated as TCP.