A new proppant exhibits a neutrally wet surface, which does not have a preferential affinity for oil, gas, or water and therefore will not promote the preferential entrapment of any phase within the proppant pack. Bitumen is so viscous that the ultraheavy crude oil is often compared to peanut butter.
Driven by a recovery in well completions and increased proppant loading per well, the market for raw fracturing sand is expected to grow by more than 4% annually through 2021, an industry research study says. Crude oil production in the United States is expected to approach 10 million B/D in 2018 and surpass a previous high achieved in 1970, according to the latest US EIA forecast. A global energy model estimates the long-term energy mix, including solids, liquids, and gases, that will satisfy energy demand to the year 2040.
Hydraulic fracturing solutions use a gelling agent known as guar gum to transport proppant. Flowback water can have guar gum concentrations has high as 1% by volume creating treatment challenges prior to reuse or disposal. In this second article of a series covering water management in hydraulic fracturing (HF) in unconventional resources, the properties and characteristics of the flowback fluids are discussed, together with the general categories of technologies that are best suited to treat them.
Prompted by concerns about possible leaching from phenolic novolac resin-coated proppants (RCPs) during operations, Fairmount Santrol conducted analysis that showed no leaching of free formaldehyde or free phenol from its phenolic novolac RCPs. This paper offers an alternative explanation for the early boundary-dominated flow related to dissolution of salt-sealed natural fractures in the shale. This paper introduces a new carbon dioxide (CO2) -hybrid fracturing-fluid design that intends to improve production from ultratight reservoirs and reduces freshwater usage.
Fed by big data loads from big operators, a university consortium and software firm are each working to make upstream data access as quick and easy as a Google search. Pictures shot in fractured wells show how a high-pressure slurry of water and sand carves up the perforations. Industry confidence is on the rise, and so is capital spending, according to DNV’s 2019 annual outlook. Unconventional development has made it clear to Erdal Ozkan that conventional theory overlooks a lot of potentially productive rock. He talks about looking for ways to do better as part of JPT’s tech director report.
Producers in Texas have claimed an economic victory with their transition to local sands that they once avoided using in horizontal wells due to their low-quality. Driven by a recovery in well completions and increased proppant loading per well, the market for raw fracturing sand is expected to grow by more than 4% annually through 2021, an industry research study says. Permian Basin producer Callon Petroleum is attributing its data-driven approach to a routine completions practice to improved proppant placement and higher oil production. Carbo Ceramics is making big strides in the use of ceramic proppant. Although Saudi Arabia has plenty of sand, it took some ingenuity by Saudi Aramco and Schlumberger to figure out how to use it effectively as proppant.
Using drilling data and a downhole acoustic signal, developers aim to assess unconventional fracture networks in real time and give engineers ability to customize each stage. Techniques for well-abandonment log evaluations have been studied in the Gulf of Mexico since 2012. The new methods described in this paper consist of adding nuclear sensors to supplement the acoustic measurements and introduce novel processing methods. Since 2007, an operator in Nigeria has registered a significant increase of oil-spill events caused by sabotage and oil-theft activities. The technology presented here allows detecting and locating leaks taking place at a distance from the sensor of up to 35 km.
Electromagnetic images can show where water flows during a hydraulic fracture. A test in the Anadarko Basin showed a fault there was a bigger hazard than expected. Electromagnetic (EM) reservoir imaging is likely to get more attention from operators thanks to a collaboration between Halliburton and a leader in this emerging technology, GroundMetrics. Carbo Ceramics is making big strides in the use of ceramic proppant.
It is no secret that drilling fluid is crucial in drilling operations. The main function of drilling fluids is to transport drill cuttings from the bottom of the hole up to the surface. Drill cuttings then will be separated on the surface before being recycled back for further drilling. Drilling fluid is subjected to extreme pressure and temperature, and its properties such as viscosity are affected strongly by pressure and temperature. Always recorded but almost never used, the water hammer signal could offer completions engineers another set of insightful data if petroleum engineers can crack its code.
Your submission must be received by 12 June 2019. The February 2019 issue of JPT® magazine had several articles related to formation damage. Peruse them below to gather inspiration before you submit. Novel fluids, tools, and techniques Injectors vs. producers Selective/oriented perforating Acidizing and acid fracturing (acid sludge prevention and acid flowback analysis) Acid diversion Hydraulic fracturing and frac packing (frac fluids, proppants, fluid loss additives, closure stress, embedment, tortuosity, perforations, and relative frac/wellbore orientation) in vertical, high-angle and/or horizontal wells Shale fracturing (slick water, crosslinked polymer, hybrid) Optimizing results of perforations-underbalanced, extreme overbalanced, and remedial cleanup Fluid flowback Proppant flowback Fracture mapping (fracture height and half length) Acoustic damage removal (may fit under novel fluids, tools and techniques)