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This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Rock mechanics/in-situ stress aspects of fracturing Reservoir aspects of fracturing (How much fracture do I need?) Fracture mechanics Fracture design variables Perforating for fracturing Fracture diagnostics You will receive a sound engineering approach to fracture treatment design and a thorough analysis of fluid/proppant selection and ancillary fracturing topics. Production and completion engineers and field operations staff with basic to moderate knowledge or experience in designing, pumping or evaluating hydraulic fracture treatments can benefit from this course.
Hydraulic fracturing solutions use a gelling agent known as guar gum to transport proppant. Flowback water can have guar gum concentrations has high as 1% by volume creating treatment challenges prior to reuse or disposal. In this second article of a series covering water management in hydraulic fracturing (HF) in unconventional resources, the properties and characteristics of the flowback fluids are discussed, together with the general categories of technologies that are best suited to treat them.
Prompted by concerns about possible leaching from phenolic novolac resin-coated proppants (RCPs) during operations, Fairmount Santrol conducted analysis that showed no leaching of free formaldehyde or free phenol from its phenolic novolac RCPs. This paper offers an alternative explanation for the early boundary-dominated flow related to dissolution of salt-sealed natural fractures in the shale. This paper introduces a new carbon dioxide (CO2) -hybrid fracturing-fluid design that intends to improve production from ultratight reservoirs and reduces freshwater usage.
Driven by a recovery in well completions and increased proppant loading per well, the market for raw fracturing sand is expected to grow by more than 4% annually through 2021, an industry research study says. Crude oil production in the United States is expected to approach 10 million B/D in 2018 and surpass a previous high achieved in 1970, according to the latest US EIA forecast. A global energy model estimates the long-term energy mix, including solids, liquids, and gases, that will satisfy energy demand to the year 2040.
Electromagnetic images can show where water flows during a hydraulic fracture. A test in the Anadarko Basin showed a fault there was a bigger hazard than expected. Electromagnetic (EM) reservoir imaging is likely to get more attention from operators thanks to a collaboration between Halliburton and a leader in this emerging technology, GroundMetrics. Carbo Ceramics is making big strides in the use of ceramic proppant.
Faster drilling speeds have become one of the major obsessions of the shale sector in recent years. But since completions represent up to 70% of a new well’s cost, maybe this side of the business needs more attention now. Fracturing two or more wells at the same time creates connections. While fracturing fluids reach out further, those ties create a stronger link, though not forever.
Using drilling data and a downhole acoustic signal, developers aim to assess unconventional fracture networks in real time and give engineers ability to customize each stage. Techniques for well-abandonment log evaluations have been studied in the Gulf of Mexico since 2012. The new methods described in this paper consist of adding nuclear sensors to supplement the acoustic measurements and introduce novel processing methods. Since 2007, an operator in Nigeria has registered a significant increase of oil-spill events caused by sabotage and oil-theft activities. The technology presented here allows detecting and locating leaks taking place at a distance from the sensor of up to 35 km.
This paper describes a material designed to interact specifically with highly corroded and weathered pipe to enable in-place application and refurbishment. A new proppant exhibits a neutrally wet surface, which does not have a preferential affinity for oil, gas, or water and therefore will not promote the preferential entrapment of any phase within the proppant pack. Bitumen is so viscous that the ultraheavy crude oil is often compared to peanut butter.
A fracture treatment, common where high fracture flow conductivity is needed. Very high pressures and very high proppant loadings are applied near the end of a fracture treatment where the tip of the fracture has stopped growing due to bridging of proppant at the fracture dip because of dehydration (frac fluid leakoff).