In the world of downhole sealing technology, there have been relatively few new developments in recent years. Traditional methods of cement and bridge plugs continue to be the standard but don't always provide an optimal solution. Thankfully there is a new technology on the market that provides a superior seal in wells when compared to traditional methods. That technology is comprised of bismuth and thermite.
Deng, Guijun (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Kendall, Alexander (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Cook, Christopher (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Wakefield, John (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Maenza, Frank (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Tom, Andy (,Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Knebel, Mark (,Baker Hughes, a GE company)
This paper is a continuation of a previous work, SPE191734 (
Three factors primarily contributed to its successful qualification. First, new backup technology eliminated traditional design limitations imposed by conventional manufacturing and enabled us to design and print a backup system with ultra-expansion capacity and superior conformability. Second, an internally developed polymer that exhibits great elongation and extrusion resistance played a key role in holding the 15,000 psi pressure reversals at 350F in the ultra-expansion states. Finally, a state-of-the-art design process seamlessly integrated design, material characterization, design optimization, and test validation, enabling rapid failure diagnosis and design iterations to ensure rigorous customer requirements were satisfied. This integrated process reduces development costs and shortens time to market.
An ultra-high expansion openhole HPHT packer was developed as a result of advances in Additive Manufacturing technology, polymeric materials, and a holistic design process. Physical test validation demonstrated:
15,000 psi pressure reversal and 15 minute hold at 350°F. Displacement of 0.5 in and 15,000 pressure reversal at 350°F. Elastomer element system remained in good visual condition in post-test inspection.
15,000 psi pressure reversal and 15 minute hold at 350°F.
Displacement of 0.5 in and 15,000 pressure reversal at 350°F.
Elastomer element system remained in good visual condition in post-test inspection.
This is the industry's first commercial completion packer with an Additive Manufactured element containment system. It is also the industry's first ultra-expansion packer to demonstrate HPHT capability.
Metal expandable annular sealing systems were used in a 4 ½" completion as an effective high-pressure isolation method inside 6" open hole mudstone formation in the Foothills Basin of Colombia. Effective isolation proved to be historically difficult to achieve.
The operator was approached with a solid metal expandable sealing system with rotation capabilities as an annular barrier for a preferred cementless completion. The sealing system needed to be assembled on a full-bore liner able to deliver robust deployment with a high-pressure seal in a worse case washed-out scenario. The deployment of the system consisted of one annular barrier placed above and one annular barrier placed below the mudstone zone.
Following careful job planning with the operator, the rotationally capable completion was deployed without any incidents. To achieve pressure integrity to set the metal expandable annular barriers, a ball seat sealing system was incorporated to allow the system to be closed and the annular barriers to be set.
After putting the well onto the pipeline, the client recorded a 52% increase in their expected produc-tion from previous wells. Successful results were accomplished as effective isolation was achieved and enhanced production was obtained because of the effective stimulation. This paper overviews the appli-cation, design, implementation and results of the use of new metal annular sealing systems in a 4 ½" completion as an effective high-pressure isolation method inside a 6" open hole, drilled in fractured sandstone and mudstone formations.
This document describes the process of planning and the execution of the production tubing micro-leak’s location detection with the use of Spectral Noise-High Precision Temperature Logging and globally novel technology of multi-set bridge plug services and its isolation with an ISO 14310 V0 rated (bubble tight) Straddle Packer assembly, fully compliant to H2S service per NACE TM0177 / ISO 11960
Accurate location identification of communication between production tubing and annulus in the corrosion resistant monobore completion of a raw gas injector well with ultra-high concentration of H2S and CO2 led to intense research for optimal solutions to detect micro-leak location and its further remedial solution.
The micro leak exhibited unique behavior which occurred mainly in a gas phase with a long duration build-up of annulus pressure. This required a complex leak detection campaign, involving Spectral Noise-High Precision Temperature Logging as the primary method of determination, and pressure testing of tubing string with the multiset retrievable bridge plug, being set on an electric wireline at different depths, as the secondary method of leak and confirmation.
The most suitable method of isolation from a feasibility and reliability points of view was to manufacture specific H2S/CO2 resistant straddle packer capable of withstanding the raw gas injection requirements.
During the non-intrusive testing it was possible at an early stage to confirm the location of the leak above the downhole safety valve. The noise-temperature surface read-out mode logging tools were run down to safety valve depth in a liquid and gas phase, indicating a zone of suspicion. The zone of suspicion matched the tubing tally with a tubing connection.
In order to confirm the presence of micro-leak at suspected points a multiset retrievable bridge plug was utilised. The tool used was a new to market multiset bridge plug with a unique technology which gave the possibility to re-set the plug multiple times within one electric wireline run. Considering the unique behaviour of the leak which appeared mostly when a production tubing was containing a gas phase under a high pressure the pumping of nitrogen in the top section of the tubing string was performed. The Multi Set bridge plug confirmed the location of the leak flawlessly showing a perfect results of execution and reliability. Checking the zone of interest with multiset bridge plug installed across and pressure tested with nitrogen confirmed the presence of leak at a tubing joint connection.
The next step after the leak location had been identified was to restore the well integrity with the installation of V0 rated Straddle Packer, which was successfully installed at the first attempt. It is important to note the highest available grade of H2S/CO2 resistant materials (Inconel 718 and FFKM elastomer) was selected during the design, manufacturing and qualification of the Straddle Packer. Restoration of well integrity has been confirmed during the following start-up of the raw gas injection.
Rigorous planning and coordination of several vendors resulted in the excellent collaboration introducing the latest global technologies in an extremely corrosive well environment. The resultant success of the complex well intervention activity, when leak investigation and remedial plans were worked out in parallel, led to restoration of the well and recommencement of Raw Gas re-injection in a record time of 8 months from the problem discovery to its solution.
This paper presents the rapid development of a high expansion retrievable V0-rated bridge plug that effectively leveraged engineering simulation and additive manufacturing to design, optimize, and qualify the new plug in accordance with the ISO14310 and API11D1 standards. This technology was mobilized for deployment into a customer well within less than 12 months.
For this project, a major Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) operator required a high expansion wireline retrievable bridge plug with a small outside diameter (OD) that was capable of gas-tight zonal isolation in 7 in. tubing while meeting the ISO14310 and API 11D1 V0 classifications. To address this challenge, several design concepts were developed using computer-aided design (CAD) and simulated using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine the optimal design and to establish the design factor of safety. Initial prototype testing showed unexpected failures of the mechanical backup system as a result of non-uniform loading from the rubber element, which had been assumed to be evenly distributed for the initial FEA. Leveraging FEA to verify the failure mode increased its fidelity and enabled successful generation of alternate solutions with an alternate material, in this case nickel alloy 718. A revised mechanical backup system was manufactured within three weeks using internal direct metal additive manufacturing capability; it was successfully validated within an additional two weeks. The final V0 trials were successfully completed a month later with additively manufactured components, and the technology was mobilized for deployment into the operator’s well within less than 12 months.
The successful design, development, and mobilization of the 7-in. high expansion V0-rated bridge plug within only 12 months demonstrates how FEA modeling and additive manufacturing can be successfully leveraged to reduce development timelines while identifying and producing innovative solutions. Speed to market and the delivery of robust solutions on time are becoming more critical in the cost-constrained oil market; consequently, tools such as FEA and additive manufacturing are increasingly becoming fundamental methods for meeting these new challenges, as demonstrated by the 7-in. high expansion V0 bridge plug project.
This paper shows how leveraging FEA in conjunction with fundamental testing failure analysis can be critical to overcoming technical challenges. Furthermore, combining these capabilities with additive manufacturing can accelerate timelines and increase the probability of project success and operator satisfaction.
SPE's publication for the Projects, Facilities, and Construction (PFC) technical discipline, Oil and Gas Facilities (OGF), has recently launched a monthly section which will feature synopses of editor-picked SPE technical papers on PFC topics. OGF Selection Editor Gerald Verbeek will pick three papers each month that are then synopsized by SPE editorial staff and published on the OGF website. Verbeek was previously the executive editor for peer-reviewed papers in OGF and was recognized as "A Peer Apart" honoree for peer-review of more than 100 technical papers. He has picked Corrosion and Scaling for the first selection, a topic that affects all involved in oil and gas facilities. "Early in my career I spent about a year as a corrosion engineer to learn the fundamentals, only to discover that without keeping scaling and corrosion in mind, it is impossible to a be a good facilities engineer," said Verbeek in his introductory article about the new section.
Over 20 percent of major oil and gas (O&G) incidents reported within the European Union (EU) since 1984 have been associated with corrosion under insulation (CUI) [
Using bayesian networks (BNs) Oceaneering has developed a decision support system for effective CUI risk management. The Bayesian model can be incorporated into existing risk-based assessment (RBA) systems. A key feature of the model is the ability to predict corrosion hotspots while quantifying uncertainties. The model uses probabilities based on objective data as well as subject matter expertise, which makes analytical techniques in business accessible to a wide range of users.
With a case study we illustrate how BNs can be used to assess the risk of a fuel gas line on a live asset in the North sea. The most likely estimated remaining life (ERL) is forecasted in the range of 13 to 24 years, with a worst case of 6.7 years and best case of 40 years. By comparison, the customer CUI tracker reported an ERL of 9.7 years. BNs increase flexibility for scheduling inspection intervals, enabling more targeted inspection planning. This is a significant advancement from current RBA methodologies.
Previous studies demonstrate that Montney rock samples present a dual-wettability pore network. Recovery of the oil retained in the small hydrophobic pores is uniquely challenging. This study compares the performance of openhole-packer completion systems with that of cemented-liner completion systems in the northern Montney gas resource play. The Montney formation in Canada is one of the largest resource plays in North America.
Microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) has been implicated in few corrosion-related challenges in the well-service industry in the past. DuPont is ramping up the commercial-scale implementation of its microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) method after nearly a decade of development and testing of what it says is a low-risk way to improve production from mature fields.