|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Fluid-Loss-Control Additives (FLAs) are used to maintain a consistent fluid volume within a cement slurry to ensure that the slurry performance properties remain within an acceptable range. The variability of each of these parameters (slurry performance properties) is dependent upon the water content of the slurry. If the water content is less than intended, the opposite will normally occur. The magnitude of change is directly related to the amount of fluid lost from the slurry. Because predictability of performance is typically the most important parameter in a cementing operation, considerable attention has been paid to mechanical control of slurry density during the mixing of the slurry to assure reproducibility.
Remedial cementing is undertaken to correct issues with the primary cement job of a well. Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs have the potential to force poor decisions and high risk. Good planning and risk assessment is the key to successful remedial cementing. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
Introduction The three primary functions of a drilling fluid--the transport of cuttings out of the wellbore, prevention of fluid influx, and the maintenance of wellbore stability--depend on the flow of drilling fluids and the pressures associated with that flow. For example, if the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. It is clear that accurate wellbore pressure prediction is necessary. To properly engineer a drilling fluid system, it is necessary to be able to predict pressures and flows of fluids in the wellbore. The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail the calculations necessary to predict the flow performance of various drilling fluids for the variety of operations used in drilling and completing a well. Overview Drilling fluids range from relatively incompressible fluids, such as water and brines, to ...
A mud is said to be contaminated when a foreign material enters the mud system and causes undesirable changes in mud properties, such as density, viscosity, and filtration. Generally, water-based mud systems are the most susceptible to contamination. Mud contamination can result from overtreatment of the mud system with additives or from material entering the mud during drilling. Solids are materials that are added to make up a mud system (bentonite, barite) and materials that are drilled (active and inert). Excess solids of any type are the most undesirable contaminant to drilling fluids.
A properly designed and maintained drilling fluid performs essential functions during well construction such as transporting cuttings to the surface, preventing well-control issues and wellbore stability, minimizing formation damage, cooling and lubricating the drillstring and providing information about the wellbore. Transporting drilled cuttings to the surface is the most basic function of drilling fluid. To accomplish this, the fluid should have adequate suspension properties to help ensure that cuttings and commercially added solids, such as barite weighing material, do not settle during static intervals. The fluid should have the correct chemical properties to help prevent or minimize the dispersion of drilled solids, so that these can be removed efficiently at the surface. Otherwise, these solids can disintegrate into ultrafine particles that can damage the producing zone, and impede drilling efficiency.
Introduction The drilling-fluid system--commonly known as the "mud system"--is the single component of the well-construction process that remains in contact with the wellbore throughout the entire drilling operation. Drilling-fluid systems are designed and formulated to perform efficiently under expected wellbore conditions. Advances in drilling-fluid technology have made it possible to implement a cost-effective, fit-for-purpose system for each interval in the well-construction process. The active drilling-fluid system comprises a volume of fluid that is pumped with specially designed mud pumps from the surface pits, through the drillstring exiting at the bit, up the annular space in the wellbore, and back to the surface for solids removal and maintenance treatments as needed. The capacity of the surface system usually is determined by the rig size, and rig selection is determined by the well design. For example, the active drilling-fluid volume on a deepwater well might be several ...
Loss of circulation is the uncontrolled flow of whole mud into a formation, sometimes referred to as a "thief zone." This article discusses causes, prevention, and remedial measures for lost circulation. Figure 1 shows partial and total lost-circulation zones. In partial lost circulation, mud continues to flow to surface with some loss to the formation. Total lost circulation, however, occurs when all the mud flows into a formation with no return to surface.
Contamination of drilling fluids with drilled cuttings is an unavoidable consequence of successful drilling operations. If the drilling fluid does not carry cuttings and cavings to the surface, the rig either is not "making hole" or soon will be stuck in the hole it is making. The drill cuttings that are separated from the drilling fluid on the surface by the soldis control equipment and some quantity of unrecoverable or economically unwanted drilling fluid are a major source of drilling waste. Drilled and formation solids that are sized smaller than can be removed by the solids control equipment are often reported as drill solids. Some quantitiy of drill solids will accumulate in the drilling fluid and must be removed by the solids control equipment or reduced in concentration by dilution.
All drilling challenges relate to the fundamental objective of maintaining a workable wellbore throughout the well-construction process. A workable wellbore can be drilled, logged, cased, cemented, and completed with minimal nonproductive time. The design of the drilling-fluid system is central to achieving this objective. With a poorly designed system there are some challenges that will occur. Most operational problems are interrelated, making them more difficult to resolve.