This paper discusses an optimum approach to design and execution of a robust chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) surveillance program considering the physics and uncertainties involved during the implementation of a chemical EOR (CEOR) application at reservoir scale. The surveillance includes techniques, measuring points, and frequency of data acquisition.
Based on field experience, a robust surveillance plan plays a key role in ensuring high performance of a CEOR application during implementation and execution at reservoir conditions. A proper surveillance program should focus on acquiring information associated with the main uncertainties related to fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions, the impact of reservoir heterogeneities at reservoir scale, fluid dynamics, and the composition and stability of the chemical formulation. The acquired information should be given to the CEOR modeling team to follow up, interpret, and adjust the CEOR process and reservoir model. Also, the information should be given to the reservoir operation team to tune up the CEOR injection and production process to help optimize performance.
Typically, specialized literature focuses on describing CEOR formulation design and evaluation; laboratory requirements, experimental settings, and analysis results; field application design and implementation; and overall results of field applications. This work emphasizes CEOR process surveillance, its importance, and impact with respect to oilfield scale applications.
There are multiple uncertainties regarding the physical parameters and phenomena that control the performance of the CEOR at reservoir scale (e.g., are uncertainties associated with fluid saturation and properties, rock-fluid interactions, reservoir heterogeneities, and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation behavior at reservoir conditions). A proper surveillance design and implementation help mitigate the impact of the mentioned uncertainties.
Therefore, surveillance is paramount for the success of a CEOR application. The design and execution of a robust surveillance program should consider the main uncertainties associated with the CEOR formulation operating window, fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions, reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir conditions, injection-production environment, and various time scales for the timely use of the acquired information and the interpretation feedback to the CEOR modeling and operation teams.
This work discusses the physics and uncertainties considered during the design and execution of an optimized surveillance program. A systematic approach is provided considering fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions, reservoir heterogeneities, CEOR formulation operating window, injection – production environment, and time scales to feedback the acquired and interpreted information during the surveillance program execution.
A high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) carbonate gas field offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, is scheduled for development. Reservoirs in this region have an average clay content of 8%; more than 50% of this clay content is migratory illite, and 15% is migratory kaolinite. The complete paper presents a numerical work flow to simulate the effect of flow-induced fines migration on production decline over time in deepwater reservoirs. Production and drawdown data from 10 subsea deepwater fractured wells have been modeled with an analytical model for unsteady-state flow with fines migration.
The one aspect of the petroleum industry that has remained constant during decades of its pendulum existence has been the desire to optimize oil and gas production with minimum cost. The SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control is an excellent venue to share your expertise, experience, and knowledge with your colleagues around the world. We hope to see you in Lafayette, Louisiana next February during the festive Mardi Gras season.
This course covers all the important facets of reservoir modeling, with a considerable amount of the class time reserved for discussion amongst the participants and instructors. Time permitting, previous models conducted by the instructors will also be discussed. By the end of this course, you will better understand how to plan and conduct reservoir studies, and how to review studies conducted by others. This course is for those who want to go beyond the Fundamentals of Reservoir Simulation course. Anyone involved in conducting, reviewing, or overseeing reservoir simulation studies will benefit.
The authors performed a complete experimental laboratory study using suspensions containing solid particles, mono-sized oil droplets, or both. Several coreflooding experiments using highly permeable sandpacks were performed over a long duration, during which significant volumes, sometimes reaching 100 L, have been injected. Also, permeability evolution has been monitored along three sections of each sandpack in order to better understand the dynamic of associated formation damage. A schematic of the experimental setup used to carry out the coreflooding experiments is shown in Figure 1. The suspensions containing solid particles or oil droplets were previously prepared in a 70-L reservoir tank. The tank is made from glass to facilitate suspension stirring and to prevent the aggregation of solid particles within it. The tank’s volume allows an injection over days and nights without interruption. The injection of suspension is ensured by a pump equipped with two low-diameter section pistons to ensure a proper injection of suspension without sedimentation of solid particles.
Migration of fines is associated with oil and gas production in sandstones as well as carbonate reservoirs. Fine particles located on the surface of rock grains are affected by adhesion, drag, and electrostatic and gravitational forces. Drag and lifting forces detach the particle, whereas adhesion, electrostatic, and gravitational forces press the particle to the surface. Generally, the main sources of movable fine particles in sandstone reservoirs are kaolinite and illite clays. Kaolinite particles are flat plates usually stacked in the form of booklets.
Large volume slick-water stimulations have become the de facto standard for completion strategy in the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica/Point Pleasant. Current completion optimization work has focused on optimizing stage spacing, sand loading, and injection rate which have shown increases in well productivity. One commonly overlooked variable in the design equation is stimulation fluid chemistry and rock/fluid interaction. Friction reducers, the primary additive of a slickwater system, have become a commodity with many service companies providing similar systems. Premium slickwater systems in the Marcellus are generally characterized by the ability to tolerate high percentages of produced water.
We have developed an alternative approach to the design of stimulation fluid chemistry. This approach consists of creating a comprehensive laboratory workflow justification for multiple fluid combinations with consideration for specific thermal maturity windows. The laboratory workflow includes proprietary rock/ fluid interaction tests that insure formation compatibility, lever imbibition/displacement production mechanisms, insure compatibility of fluid components inclusive of available water sources, and insure optimization of the fluid based on stimulation intensity (
This study highlights the importance of justifying stimulation fluid chemistry utilizing a laboratory workflow. The laboratory workflow incorporates rock/fluid interaction testing to maximize the imbibition/displacement production mechanism. The laboratory workflow must also prove that the stimulation fluid chemistry satisfies the stimulation intensity objectives of high rate, high sand concentration, and reduced fluid volumes while enabling reliable field execution.