This paper will focus on the application of lithium-ion energy storage solutions (ESS) for offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations. It will discuss the benefits that can be achieved by integrating energy storage in hybrid power plants, using the West Mira semisubmersible installation in the North Sea as a representative case study. West Mira will be the world's first modern drilling rig to operate a low-emission hybrid (dieselelectric) power plant using lithium-ion batteries. The integration of energy storage with the power supply and distribution system of a drilling rig represents an important step towards improving the environmental sustainability of the offshore oil and gas industry by reducing emissions and paving the way to harnessing clean but intermittent renewables, such as offshore wind. Offshore rigs have highly variable power consumption for drilling and dynamic positioning. By incorporating energy storage, it is possible to reduce the runtime of combustion engines and also keep them operating on an optimized combustion level. The installation of an ESS on West Mira will result in an estimated 42% reduction in the runtime of on-platform diesel engines, reducing CO2 emissions by 15 percent and NOx emissions by 12 percent, which is equivalent to annual emissions from approximately 10,000 automobiles. The batteries on West Mira will be charged from the rig's diesel-electric generators and used for supplying power during peak load times. In addition, they will serve as backup to prevent blackout situations and provide power to the thrusters in the unlikely event of loss of all running machinery.
No matter what industry or activity, when a human is performing a task, there is a possibility that the person carrying out that task could make an error. There are numerous studies showing the contribution of poor procedures towards human error, which led to an incident, ranges between 65-90%. Process Safety Management legislation such as Seveso III and OSHA 1910.119, require the use of procedures when executing safety critical tasks and as such regulators have recognized the importance of having a set of good quality procedures as part of the management of human factors.
As companies begin to embrace the concepts of digitalization and big data, the main challenge still remains … ‘how do we make a step change in reducing human error in heavily paper based operating and maintenance procedures?’
This paper will provide examples of how poor procedures have led to human error causing across industry incidents, introduce the background to human factors with respect to procedures and explain some of human error categories to which people are susceptible. The paper will then explain the road map approach that the UK regulator (UK Health and Safety Executive) has adopted as part of their Human Factors Delivery Guide. The paper then shows how the energy industry's approach return these procedures back into a paper format, fails to take advantage of available digital technologies to make the step changes in reducing human error.
This paper shows that incidents continue to occur in all industries due to human error in procedures and shows how the drive from the regulator to perform Critical Tasks Analysis can actually lead to procedures becoming less useable (f these reviews are not performed correctly). The paper will then show how taking a digital approach to meeting these new regulatory requirements provides the opportunity to digitize existing operating and maintenance procedures, enabling a structured, efficient and auditable approach to theses assessments. The paper will also show how the adoption of the available digital technologies provide new performance influencing techniques that are not available in paper-based systems.
The paper will also show how emerging technologies such as Augmented Reality can further enable the transition to these new technologies and how big data, can provide additional continuous improvements in procedures, ensure appropriate competencies are in place for field workers performing tasks and also introduce significant efficiencies to lower operation costs.
Human error continues to contribute significantly to incidents in the energy and other industries. To address this, regulators, such as the UK Health and Safety Executive, are placing new requirements on operating companies to ensure the risks associated with errors in procedures are managed more effectively. The opportunity to make a step change in reducing human error, whilst also providing an efficient work flow, will lead to safer working environments, reduce potential impacts on the environment and also provide efficiencies for operation and maintenance teams, which will lead to savings in Operational Expenditure.
With multistage operations becoming the industry norm, operators need easily deployable diversion technologies that will protect previously stimulated perforations and enable addition of new ones. This paper reviews several aspects of the use of in-stage diversion. Significant production gains are being made with hydraulicly fractured wells using diversion to stimulate a higher percentage of the perforations.
As part of an effort to evaluate existing riser systems, an operator launched an inspection and testing program to investigate risers retrieved following well abandonment after a service life of nearly 10 years in the Gulf of Mexico. New long-term contracts between offshore drillers and equipment makers reduce downtime and risks associated with key components, from blowout preventers to risers. This paper evaluates the feasibility of a number of production- and export-riser configurations for ultradeepwater applications. This paper presents results from full-scale testing of a flexible riser equipped with embedded sensors for distributed-temperature sensing (DTS).
In a collaborative project, the possibility of measuring fluid levels in a wellbore by use of distributed optical pressure gauges was conceived, prototyped, field-trialed, and further developed to a point of widespread commercialization. The treatment in a deepwater, frac-packed well with fiber-optic-equipped coiled tubing (CT) and a rotating, hydraulic high-pressure jetting tool achieved successful stimulation of a 500-ft-long frac-packed zone after several previous failures using different techniques. In the past decade, fiber-optic -based sensing has opened up opportunities for in-well reservoir surveillance in the oil and gas industry. In this paper, the authors present a recent example of single-phase-flow profiling with distributed acoustic sensing.
In this paper, the authors describe a project to design, field trial, and qualify an alternative solution for real-time monitoring of the oil rim in carbonate reservoirs that overcomes these disadvantages. This paper shows results from use of a new technology that uses in-well-conveyed fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for the detection of sand-ingress zones across the reservoir section throughout the production period in real time. This paper discusses the objectives of the Fiber-Optic Leak-Detection (FOLD) project, carried out in Verneuil-en-Halatte, France.
JPT Technology Minute Poll: To Which of the Top Five UN Sustainability Development Goals Do You Think the Oil and Gas Industry Will Contribute the Most? The papers identified in the article cover sustainable development of oil and gas resources in various aspects. Flaring and emissions challenges have recently made news headlines around the world. The goal of this article is to engage you with this important topic by presenting a selection of recent SPE papers which address these challenges through various approaches. Operators face a dilemma in balancing the need for mud weight (MW) to remain below the fracture gradient to avoid losses, while also providing sufficient density to block influxes into the well. JPT Technology Minute Poll: Which Technology Would You Choose for Offshore Compression?
As natural gas pipeline systems have grown larger and more complex, the importance of optimization of design and operation of pipelines has increased. This paper examines the optimization issue for the Egyptian gas transmission pipeline network. Paradoxical effects can exist when expanding the capacity of natural-gas-transportation networks. This paper derives conditions where it can be expected, how the effect can be masked, and provide analysis to support identification in larger-scale networks. The present work describes the development of a 1D steady-state isothermal reservoir/surface gas-pipeline-network model.
The large independent put together a team of data scientists, software developers, and petrotechnical staff to create a forward-looking vision for how to use digital technology to solve problems. Baker Hughes is still a GE company, but it has partnered with a second company for artificial intelligence expertise, C3.ai. The deal is expected to speed the integration of AI into oilfield operations by the company which also markets GE’s device analytics platform, Predix. Marathon Oil says its shale fields are producing more oil and gas with less hands-on work from company personnel thanks to a growing arsenal of digital technologies and workflows. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption.