In this paper a software suit is described which main purpose is to facilitate the engineering, design and analysis process such that consistency of input is assured and the risk of erroneous input is decreased, and such that results and documentation are automatically generated to increase quality of documentation. Current scope is a standard calculation tool covering different aspects of design in compliance with relevant offshore codes and standards. A modularization technique is used to divide the software system into multiple discrete and independent modules based on offshore codes and standards, which are capable of carrying out task(s) independently. These modules work as basic constructs for the entire software, but at same time these modules can be executed separately and independently. This modularization technique also includes other benefits, such as ease of maintenance and updates. The quality of an implementation of offshore codes and standards in software modules and their interaction among them are measured by defining the level of inter-dependability among the subsea engineering and analysis modules, and by defining the degree of intra-dependability within elements of a module. How modules interfere and interact with each other is defined by couplings. The improvements are related to the objectives of a state-of-the-art procedure of performing engineering, design and analysis by use of offshore codes and standards implemented in this software suit to assure a consistent way of working.
The existing SNAME OpenCalc System is built upon an open source framework that allows for the creation of long-lasting and reusable calculations that can be combined in many ways to create completely new solutions by naval architects, not programmers. Flexible calculation tools are created by splitting traditional monolithic program applications ("apps") into three separately developed and tested objects: 1. Calculation Engine (CE) batch programs 2. Open source and industry standard (XML) data files 3. Open source user interface frameworks (UIF) that work with any CE without programming. More generically these components (objects) could be described as: 1. The software "compute" component 2. Data payload for data-interchange based on industry standard normalized format 3. User interface and composer The SNAME OpenCalc System offers a new programming structure that returns creative control and flexibility to subject matter experts (SMEs) and users. It can create solutions not possible without access to all source code and expensive custom programming.
An operator and rig contractor have been implementing drilling operations automation (DOA) pursuing well design and drilling operational execution improvements in terms of safety, quality, delivery, and cost (SQDC). Today, drilling automation enables tighter process control of operations and well design stakeholders are beginning to fully understand and anticipate its value.
DOA requires applying a process control approach and defining well construction processes at a very detailed level. This process control approach is proposed as a method to study and improve work steps and integrate them into overall operational activities. Optimizing, much less controlling, a drilling system is a difficult task with a multitude of variables to manage. The process of automating operations may be one of the best tools to reduce the number of unknown variables and better deliver consistent SQDC results.
Automation case studies such as a downhole Weight on Bit (WOB) drilling system, a directional drilling advisory system, a sliding system for conventional steerable mud motors, and an integrated tubular running system are described to highlight the role of automation in assisting operators and contractors to efficiently manage and improve the well construction process. Process automation requires improvements in foundational systems, tools, and data quality to support operational performance. The most significant finding is how automated systems enable operations to be practically managed at a detailed level by drilling personnel, engineers, and other stakeholders. After practices and systems are proven and automated, they can be scaled and managed over an entire rig fleet. This will ultimately enable today's well construction and drilling system related risks to be mitigated and managed, leading to further SQDC rewards with more efficient well designs.
The operator and rig contractor will share perspectives for realizing value and opportunity through applying DOA. Experience shows DOA-influenced standardized operations can result in eliminating steps that are no longer needed. Automation enables changes to well design that are just beginning to be understood and anticipated by drilling teams. The challenge will be linking these opportunities to pursue new capabilities supporting well design improvement. This will be the true benefit from automating drilling operations.
This paper describes the implementation of a performance analysis (PA) review and a comprehensive root cause failure analysis (RCFA) for the artificial lift system (ALS) failures in heavy oil wells. The subject wells, located in Egyptian Eastern Desert (EED), have been operated by Canadian-Egyptian joint venture. Progressive cavity pump (PCP) and beam pump (BP) have been selected as the preferred ALS methods. With the objective of improving ALS performance, RCFA identifies the main causes of ALS failures and proposes guidelines and recommendations with a new open source service for the current and future development for EED Oil companies.
PA has been applied using some Key Performance Indicators (KPI), such as: failure index, recurrence index, and average run life in order to track all failed and crucial issues. RCFA has been applied to different ALS, such as: BP and PCP. Therefore, the definition or limitation of the boundaries of each system and the classification of failures were performed. RCFA covered failures between 2012 and 2018 for average 150 active wells and 622 failures. Finally, the new open source service applied as a trial to evolve the failure tracking and decision making methodology.
PA review showed a high failure and recurrence index that reached 3.0 and 3.7, respectively, in 2014 then declined to 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, in 2017 as a result of comprehensive corrective actions implemented. RCFA showed that rod string failure in BP was and still is a dominant failure with 200 failures over the last six years. Moreover, Down-hole pump failure in PCP was the major PCP failure system although its failures declined from 80 failures in 2014 to 14 failures in 2018. Several field cases were presented to cover the dominant cause of failures for both BP and PCP wells. Most wells had a significant improvement in their mean time to failure (MTTF) after reviewing design, installation and operation procedures.
The procedure for carrying out this methodology and implementing lessons learned has been presented in this paper. In addition, the new open source integration service provides an increased visibility about individual well performance issues and more broadly, about field performance and ALS failures.
Openhole logging tools have been used without wireline in memory logging for 20 years, in an important and growing market. A new system in field trials in Canada and Russia in 2019 further expands the operating envelope overlap between wireline and logging-while-drilling by making step changes in communications, autonomy, performance, and reliability. The new approach advances the logging of horizontal and challenging wells, and permits operations in managed pressure drilling and foam drilled wells.
The vast majority of openhole memory work is achieved with a hydro-mechanical system that indicates successful deployment but lacks two-way communication between the engineer at surface and the tools downhole. Pressure-pulse communications have been used for 10 years with a wide range of measurements including memory logging with wireline formation testers. The experience gained from operating these systems informed the development of a new system that uses drillpipe rotation to communicate to the tools, pressure pulses to reply for the uplink, and a more powerful downhole processor. These enhancements in autonomy and communication improve the outcome of logging jobs.
The system incorporates a new rotation downlink method which employs data from an angular rate sensor to identify a series of commands sent by rotating the drillstring. Control software in the downhole tools executes the commands, and replies are transmitted uphole by pressure pulses. The toolstring is released from a safe ‘garage’ position inside the drillpipe and deployed into openhole, with the top of the toolstring retained by a no-go. The engineer is supplied with far more diagnostic information than previously, including the axial position of the tools, with context sensitive encoding to provide maximum troubleshooting information to the surface over a limited bandwidth channel. The pressure-pulse downlink remains in place as a secondary method. Other material improvements include high data sampling rate, debris tolerance and downhole recovery strategies. All of these advances improve the autonomy of the downhole memory equipment as well as the real-time communication and control from the surface.
Autonomous memory logging toolstrings, with powerful downhole software and rotation downlink communications, are important components in improving the performance and reliability of these successful and innovative formation evaluation systems.
Atadeger, Aykut (The University of Tulsa) | Batur, Ela (The University of Tulsa and Turkish Petroleum Corporation) | Onur, Mustafa (The University of Tulsa) | Thompson, Leslie G. (Cimarex Energy Company)
In this study, we provide a detailed review and comparison of the various graphical methods, available in the literature, to interpret/analyze rate and pressure transient data acquired from multistage hydraulically fractured horizontal wells (MHFHWs) completed in unconventional gas reservoirs. The methods reviewed are based on transient matrix linear flow (
SPE Webinars is hosting a 4-day webinar series on "Programming for Engineers" during 19–22 September. The webinars will review fundamental computer science and programming concepts in the context of writing Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) "macros" to automate Microsoft Excel. Participants will build simple automated tools for common oil and gas tasks while covering algorithms, data structures, program design, and debugging. The Excel automation API, the limitations of the Excel/VBA environment, and some topics for future self-directed learning will also be discussed. Each session runs 60 minutes and registering participants are automatically signed up for all four parts of this series.
A particular challenge inherent to carbonate reservoirs is reservoir rock typing which impacts model initialisation and saturation distributions and hence STOIIP, phase mobilities, and flow behaviours. We explore how flow diagnostics can be used best to detect subtle differences in reservoir dynamics arising from different model initialisations by comparing flow diagnostics simulations with full-physics simulations.
Flow diagnostics are applied to two reservoirs, a synthetic but realistic model representing an analogue for the Arab-D formation and a giant carbonate reservoir from the Middle East. Saturation modelling and reservoir rock typing is based on uniform and heterogeneous Pc and kr distributions, and further employs a state-of-the-art software that integrates of SCAL data and log-derived saturations. Sweep efficiency and dynamic Lorenz coefficients are then derived from the flow diagnostics results to quantify and compare the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir models. The full-physics simulations, which are used to validate the flow diagnostics results, are carried out with a commercial Black Oil simulator.
The flow diagnostics results can clearly distinguish between different homogenous and heterogeneous rock-type distributions, wettability trends, as well as novel saturation modelling approaches that use dedicated software tools. Flow diagnostics capture the same trends in recovery predictions as the full-physics simulations. Importantly though, the total CPU time for a single flow diagnostics calculation including model loading is on the order of seconds, compared to minutes and hours for a single full-physics simulation. These observation give confidence that flow diagnostics can be used effectively to compare and contrast the impact of reservoir rock typing, saturation modelling, and model initialisation on reservoir performance before running full-physics simulations. Flow diagnostic hence allow us to reduce the number of reservoir models from a model ensemble and select a small number of diverse yet realistic reservoir models that capture the full range of geological uncertainties which are then subjected to more detailed reservoir simulation studies.
Flow diagnostics are particularly well suited for complex carbonate reservoirs which are geologically more complex than clastic reservoirs and often exhibit significant uncertainties. Giant carbonate reservoirs are also challenging to simulate using full-physics simulators due to their size, so the impact of geological uncertainty on the predicted reservoir performance is often underexplored. Flow diagnostics are hence an effective complement to quantify uncertainty in state-of-the-art reservoir modelling, history matching and optimisation workflows, particularly for giant carbonate reservoirs.
Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. The contract is helping to solidify Europe’s offshore sector as the focal point for the rise of automated drilling technology. This paper presents a case history of drilling automation system pilot deployment, including the use of wired drillpipe, on an Arctic drilling operation. In this paper, the application of a real-time T&D model is demonstrated. The process of T&D analysis was automated, and the time and cost required to run physical models offline was reduced or, in some cases, eliminated.
This page discusses the specific artificial-lift technique known as beam pumping, or the sucker-rod lift method. Many books, technical articles, and industry standards have been published on the sucker-rod lift method and related technology.Additionally, the other components of a sucker-rod pumping installation are discussed, including applicable engineering and operating information. The complete operating system should be understood and addressed to properly design, install, and operate this or any other type of artificial lift system. Beam pumping, or the sucker-rod lift method, is the oldest and most widely used type of artificial lift for most wells. A sucker-rod pumping system is made up of several components, some of which operate aboveground and other parts of which operate underground, down in the well. The post is called a Sampson post, and the beam is normally called a walking beam.