Mudslides And Landslides At Kizlac - Turkey

Smith, I.K. (T.Y.Lin International, Vauxhall, London) | Brunsden, D. (University of London, Kings College) | Searle, T.R. (T.Y.Lin International, Vauxhall, London)


Abstract - This paper describes a mudslide and other instabilities over a four kilometre stretch of the Amanus Mountains (Nurdag Range) near the village of Kizlac in Southern Turkey. The geo-morphological setting of this stretch of the Horu River valley (between Adana and Gaziantep) is described and the engineering properties of the materials involved in both a classic mudslide of 14 million cubic metres of slide material, eight potentially unstable relic slides and a number of active slides in the area. Details are provided of the development of the slide debris from the surrounding metadetric mountains and of the mechanisms involved in the slides. The effect that these gave on route selection in this area, for a traffic corridor, are examined. Zusammenfassung: Die vorliegende Arbeit, basierend auf der Arbeit von Smith und Yilmazer (1992), beschreibt einen Hangrutsch sowie weitere Erdinstabilitaten entlang einer Strecke von 4 km im Amanus Gebirge (Nurdag Range) nahe des Dorfes Kizlac (suedliche Tuerkei). Die Geomorpgologie des Horu-Tales (zwischen Adana und Gaziantep) und die geotechnischen rennwerte des Erdreiches in einem Hangrutsch (14 Hio m3) werden Informationen ueber 8 weitere ehemalige, sowie eine Anzahl von noch nict zum Stillstand gekommenen Rutschunqen in der Umgebung gegeben. Sowohl die Prozesse, die zur Entstehung des Rutschungsmaterials fuehren, als auch die verschiedenen Rutschungsmechanismen und deren Einfluss auf die Planung der Infrastruktur werden untersucht. Resume: Ce papier de'crit Ie boue glissant avec d'autres instabilites aux montagnes de Nurdag au sud Turque. La nature geomorphologiciel est decrite bien que les proprietes des materiaux incluent dans un classique boue glissant de 14 millions me'tres cubes, huit relique glissantes et un nombre de glisses actif. On a examine' l'effet de ces glisses sur Ie choix de la route qui parcour cette reqion. 1 INTRODUCTION: This paper is based on an earlier article Smith and Yilmazer (1992). The area of interest (Figure 1) has been described in some detail in a paper by Yilmazer and Smith (1992) in which the Kizlac region is shown to be one of intense tectonic plate movement. These plate movements are associated with major tectonic related features. The main features are, The East African Rift Valley, The Red Sea spreading ridges, Ecemis Fault (EF), Anatolian Faults and the expanding movements of the Central Anatolian Plate. It may therefore be realised that the plate movements that created the Nur Mountain Range (NMR) in southern Turkey are merely an extension of the same movements that created these named features. The plate movements may be traced from the surface geological features, a series of faults on both sides of the valley, and the basic bedding orientation of the metamorphic rocks; mica schist, slate, hematite schist, phyllite, metaquartzite, chlorite schist. The NHR range represents a monoclinal structure with the thrust direction being from the NNW to the SSE. Drag faults, recumbent and reverse faults are all caused and are visible at different locations. Each of these features have different levels of fragmentation of the metadetrics resulting in different landslide types. In general the faults have wide fragmentation zones. In the Kizlac area, the plate movements are represented by faults extending at near parallel bearings of 16 deg and 168 deg, both on the north and south side of the valley. A central fold feature is revealed by the river (Horu) cutting down through the strata from east to west. The weathering sequence is stronger on the north side because of more intense freeze/thaw cycles. The degradation of the rock on the south side is less pronounced and from a basic geo-morphological map.

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