The article discusses a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia, proposed by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.E. Kontorovich in 2020. It was noted that the oil industry is currently facing a number of serious difficulties, such as the depletion of fields, a decrease in the number of discoveries of new fields, ineffective production methods due to the lack of modern innovative technologies, imperfect legislation, licensing of large state-owned enterprises, insufficient proven reserves; and lack of funding. It is shown that there will still be periods of destabilization of the oil market (crises) in the world, and in such conditions a more thought-out policy of Russia in matters of oil and gas production is needed. In this regard, the proposals of A.E. Kontorovich on the need to change the current development paradigm, which consisted in the consistent development of new oil and gas provinces, moving from west to east. When discussing the new paradigm, we used the experience of the successful oil development in the oldest Russian oil ang gas bearing region - the Republic of Tatarstan. Over the long history of the development of the oil industry in the republic, a vast experience has been accumulated in the exploration and development of oil fields – from small and smallest to giant and supergiant. Approaches for the rational development of various groups and categories of deposits have been found. The most effective methods of prospecting, exploration and additional exploration of oil fields, the most advanced hydrodynamic methods for the development of fields with active and hard-to-recover reserves, including at the late stages of development, have been developed, methods of enhanced oil recovery for various geological and physical conditions have been widely used, including the extraction of residual reserves of long-term exploited deposits. Extensive experience has been accumulated in the development of complex small fields with hard-to-recover oil reserves. It is concluded that the proposed by A.E. Kontorovich, a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia touches upon topical problems of the industry, requires additional analysis and further development.