In this paper, we use a combination of acoustic impedance and production data for history matching the full Norne Field. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate a robust and flexible work flow for assisted history matching of large data sets. We apply an iterative ensemble-based smoother, and the traditional approach for assisted history matching is extended to include updates of additional parameters representing rock clay content, which has a significant effect on seismic data. Further, for seismic data it is a challenge to properly specify the measurement noise, because the noise level and spatial correlation between measurement noise are unknown. For this purpose, we apply a method based on image denoising for estimating the spatially correlated (colored) noise level in the data. For the best possible evaluation of the workflow performance, all data are synthetically generated in this study. We assimilate production data and seismic data sequentially. First, the production data are assimilated using traditional distance-based localization, and the resulting ensemble of reservoir models is then used when assimilating seismic data. This procedure is suitable for real field applications, because production data are usually available before seismic data. If both production data and seismic data are assimilated simultaneously, the high number of seismic data might dominate the overall history-matching performance.
The noise estimation for seismic data involves transforming the observations to a discrete wavelet domain. However, the resulting data do not have a clear spatial position, and the traditional distance-based localization schemes used to avoid spurious correlations and underestimated uncertainty (because of limited ensemble size), are not possible to apply. Instead, we use a localization scheme that is based on correlations between observations and parameters that does not rely on physical position for model variables or data. This method automatically adapts to each observation and iteration.
The results show that we reduce data mismatch for both production and seismic data, and that the use of seismic data reduces estimation errors for porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross ratio (NTG). Such improvements can provide useful information for reservoir management and planning for additional drainage strategies.