Evolution of Dynamic Sag Testing Methods

Miller, JJ (Halliburton) | Jamison, Dale E. (Halliburton)


Abstract Maintaining the integrity of the drilling-fluid column is vital for safety and operational efficiency. Stable, controlled fluid density provides a primary pressure barrier during the drilling phase. Non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) provide huge benefits for nearly all aspects of difficult drilling situations, yet still can have challenges related to weight suspension. The geometry and annular restrictions of modern well designs often demand low fluid rheology parameters to avoid excessive circulating pressures, and this unsurprisingly increases the risks of sagging weight material. Given the importance of understanding the fluid behaviors in these situations, operators and service companies have made significant efforts to develop reliable sag testing methods. Older methods of testing neglected movement and instead centered on mimicking the downhole conditions such as temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Variations of this static aging method addressed the critical angle where Boycott settling accelerates the sag. More complex, dynamic methods were devised later in time to provide greater insight on sag behaviors. Although engineers and scientists have made numerous strides to create a definitive sag test, the current tests have limited capabilities. Very few are capable of working in an offshore environment. Sag events continue to be costly and problematic to operators’ main objectives of drilling and completing their wells safely and efficiently. The authors address results from the current state of the art in sag testing and compare these to a proprietary dynamic procedure created in 2019. While the method is still in development, its capabilities have been well defined. Fluid samples are kept in constant motion at low-ranging shear rates and elevated temperatures to simulate sag-prone conditions downhole. Results indicate a high degree of correlation to the expected sag with different sizes of barite in low-ECD fluids.

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