Utility of Sonic Anisotropic Measurements in Accurate Rock Mechanics Calculation For Hydro-Fracturing Design And Wellbore Stability Analysis In Unconventional Reservoirs

Kumar, Rajeev (Schlumberger) | Zacharia, Joseph (Schlumberger) | Guo Yu, Dai (Schlumberger) | Singh, Amit Kumar (Schlumberger) | Talreja, Rahul (Schlumberger) | Bandyopadhyay, Atanu (Schlumberger) | Subbiah, Surej Kumar (Schlumberger)

OnePetro 

Abstract

The unconventional reservoirs have emerged as major hydrocarbon prospects and optimum yield from these reservoirs is dependent on two key aspects, viz. well design and hydrofracturing wherein rock mechanics inputs play key role. The Sonic Measurements at borehole condition are used to compute the rock mechanical properties like Stress profile, Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio. Often, these are influenced by the anisotropy of layers and variations in well deviation for same formations. In one of the fields under review, the sonic compressional slowness varied from 8us/ft. to 20us/ft. at the target depth in shale layer in different wells drilled with varying deviation through same formations. This affected the values of stress profile, Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio resulting in inaccurate hydro-fracture design. At higher well deviation, breakouts were frequently observed and could not be explained on the basis of compressional slowness as it suggested faster and more competent formation. Current paper showcases case studies where hole condition improved in new wells with better hydro fracturing jobs considering effect of anisotropy in Geomechanics workflow. Sonic logs in deviated wells across shale layer were verticalized using estimated Thomson parameters considering different well path through same layer and core test results. Vertical and horizontal Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio were estimated for shale layers with better accuracy. The horizontal tectonic strain was constrained using radial profiles of the three shear moduli obtained from the Stoneley and cross-dipole sonic logs at depth intervals where stress induced anisotropy can be observed in permeable sandstone layer. A rock mechanics model was prepared by history matching borehole failures, drilling events and hydro-frac results in vertical and horizontal wells using updated rock properties. Geomechanical model with corrected sonic data helped to explain the breakouts in shale layer at 60deg-85deg well deviation where the original sonic basic data suggested faster and more competent formation with slight variation in stress profile among shale-sand layer. Considering shear failure, the mud weight to maintain good hole conditions at 80deg should be 0.6ppg-0.8ppg higher than that being used in offset vertical wells. Estimated closure pressure and breakdown pressure showed good match with frac results in deviated wells using new workflow. There was difference of .03psi/ft-0.07psi/ft. in shale layers using this new workflow which helped to explain frac height and containment during pressure history match. This paper elucidates the methodology that provides a reliable and accurate rock mechanics characterization to be used for well engineering applications. The study facilitates in safely and successfully drilling wells with lesser drilling issues and optimized frac stages.