EV Adoption Case Study: Analysis of the Infrastructure Required

Haider, Syed Tabish (Sinopec Tech Middle East R&D Center)

OnePetro 

Abstract Objectives/Scope The Middle East has one of the highest per-capita power consumption globally. The governments have set ambitious goals to mitigate climate change and reduce carbon footprint. In this context, a large-scale transition to electric vehicles is expected in the coming decades. This study aims to quantify and analyze the carbon footprint reduction, and the infrastructure (power distribution hubs, primary energy, superchargers/standard chargers, metals/minerals) required to support this transition for a sample population. Methods, Procedures, Process The transition to the clean energy infrastructure is power intensive and depends on reasonable resource allocation. While supporting this transition, the resource allocation simultaneously must address the present energy demand. In this paper, we model realistic time required to transition to electric vehicle infrastructure constrained by the present/future energy demand. We also model the achievable transition rate constrained by the available resources (metals, minerals, power supply). We quantify the feasibility of charging cars at home and its effect on power grids. We also compare the number of superchargers required to compete with the high throughput of gasoline fuel stations. The impact of different charging modes (superfast chargers) and the associated cost are analyzed. Results, Observations, Conclusions We show that the amount of rare earth elements (RRE) and other minerals required to build high-end electric vehicle is significantly high, and the security of the resource availability will have a huge impact on the transition rate. At homes, the electricity usage pattern with respect to time will have a huge impact on the power rating of the electric cables required to support charging infrastructure. It will also require careful changes to the transformer's peak power. In the field, the number of superchargers required to match high throughput of gasoline fuel stations are comparatively high. Finally, we show that compared to the personal car segment, the electrification of the public transport system will have better economic impact and higher effect of carbon footprint reduction. Novel/Additive Information We provide a workflow to assess the resource, and infrastructure required to develop and operate an electric vehicle infrastructure. The results presented will acts as the base to further economic and resource requirement analysis required to develop, and support future energy transition decisions and strategy.

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