Mechanical failure of cap rock is one of the main reasons of CO2 leakage from the storage formations. Through comprehensive assessment on the petrophysical and geomechanical heterogeneities of cap rock, it is possible to estimate the pressure distribution more accurately and to predict the risk of unexpected caprock failure. To describe the fracture reactivation and fracture permeability, modified Barton-Bandis model and dual permeability system are applied. Porosity-permeability relationship is calculated with power law. In order to generate hydro-geomechanically heterogeneous fields, the negative correlation between porosity and Young's modulus/Poisson's ratio is applied. In comparison to homogeneous model, effects of heterogeneity are examined in terms of vertical deformation and the amount of leaked CO2. To compare the effects of heterogeneity, heterogeneous models for both geomechanical and petrophysical properties in coupled simulation are designed.
Simulation results show that CO2 leakage occurs after 4-6 years from injection. After 10 year injection with petrophysically heterogeneous and geomechanically homogeneous caprock, CO2 leakage is larger than that of homogeneous model. In contrast, heterogeneity of geomechanical properties is shown to mitigate additional escape of CO2. Vertical displacement of every heterogeneous model is larger than homogeneous model. According to results from model with petrophysically heterogeneous and geomechanically homogeneous caprock, the higher Dykstra-Parsons coefficients (