Skalinski, Mark (retired Chevron ETC) | Mallan, Robert (Chevron ETC) | Edwards, Mason (Chevron ETC) | Sun, Boqin (Chevron ETC) | Toumelin, Emmanuel (Chevron ETC) | Kelly, Grant (Chevron ETC) | Wushur, Hazaretali (Chevron ETC) | Sullivan, Michael (Chevron Canada Resources)
Assessment of the “net pay” is an essential part of reservoir characterization and resource determination. Standard methods usually involve the use of porosity, permeability and water saturation cutoffs to define net reservoir, net pay and perforation zones. However, there are no industry standards for the definition of cutoffs and their application in the reservoir characterization workflows. Assessment of net-pay cutoff s in carbonates is more challenging than in clastics due to inherent heterogeneity of pore architecture and permeability. Historically, the success rate of flowing perforations is low, and operators tend to “overperforate” to capture all potential flowing zones.
This study was undertaken to redefine pay categories and provide methods of cutoff determination in carbonates, leveraging applications of NMR logging, capillary pressure, and in-situ flow measurements. The new category of “gross hydrocarbon” is introduced to describe the rock charged with hydrocarbon. The new methods defining “gross hydrocarbon” are described: NMR shape analysis and hydrocarbon-charged pore-throat (HCPT) or R10 method. NMR T2 shape and 2D shape analyses define the minimum porosity and/or permeability with detectable hydrocarbon signal. The T2 shape analyses were performed for several carbonate fields around the world, yielding a porosity cutoff for hydrocarbon charge varying between 1.5 and 3.5%, depending on reservoir type.
The HCPT or R10 method used an extensive MICP dataset from these carbonate fields to predict an entry pore-throat radius corresponding to potential hydrocarbon charge. The predicted entry pore-throat log combined with the pore-throat size corresponding to capillary pressure at specific height above free-water level (HAFWL) allowed to define zones which were not penetrated by hydrocarbon charge due insufficient capillary pressure. Definition of those zones corroborated results from the NMR shape analysis. Both methods are restricted to hydrocarbon column.
The next cutoff investigated was the minimum value of permeability associated with observed flow of in-situ fluids indicated by wireline pressure test or production logs. This cutoff would correspond to the conventional “net reservoir” definition. The use of permeability mitigates the need for porosity cutoff s, which usually vary by rock type. The study performed in the different carbonate reservoirs yielded permeability cutoff s varying between 0.01and 1 mD.
Practical examples from Tengiz, Karachaganak, PZ, West Africa and Permian basin validate the consistency between methods and the validity of statistical predictions of R10 pore throat. The methods presented here can be applied to any conventional reservoir.