Xu, Zhengming (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Wu, Kan (Texas A&M University) | Song, Xianzhi (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Li, Gensheng (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhu, Zhaopeng (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Sun, Baojiang (China University of Petroleum, East China)
Energized fracturing fluids, including foams, carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2), are widely used for multistage fracturing in horizontal wells. However, because density, rheology, and thermal properties are sensitive to temperature and pressure, it is important to understand the flow and thermal behaviors of energized fracturing fluids along the wellbore. In this study, a unified steady-state model is developed to simulate the flow and thermal behaviors of different energized fracturing fluids and to investigate the changes of fluid properties from the wellhead to the toe of the horizontal wellbore. The velocity and pressure are calculated using continuity and momentum equations. Temperature profiles of the whole wellbore/formation system are obtained by simultaneously solving energy equations of different thermal regions. Temperature, pressure, and energized-fluid properties are coupled in both depth and radial directions using an iteration scheme. This model is verified against field data from energized-fluid-injection operations. The relative average errors for pressure and temperature are less than 5%. The effects of injection pressure, mass-flow rate, annulus-fluid type, foam quality, and proppant volumetric concentration on pressure and temperature distributions are analyzed. Influence degrees of these operating parameters on the bottomhole pressure (BHP) for different energized fracturing fluids are calculated. The required injection parameters at the surface to achieve designed bottomhole treating parameters for different energized fracturing fluids are compared. The results of this study might help field operators to select the most-suitable energized fluid and further optimize energized-fluid-fracturing treatments.