Advanced LWD Oil-Based Mud (OBM) Imaging in Challenging Sub-Salt Deepwater Environments

Pineda, Wilson (BP) | Wadsworth, Jennifer (BP) | Halverson, Dann (BP) | Mathers, Genevive (BP) | Cedillo, Gerardo (BP) | Maeso, Carlos (Schlumberger) | Maggs, David (Schlumberger) | Watcharophat, Hathairat (Schlumberger) | Xu, Weixin (Wayne) (Schlumberger)

OnePetro 

ABSTRACT

Deepwater depositional environments in the Gulf of Mexico can be very complex. Accurate determination of depositional facies is important in these capital-intensive fields. The most common reservoir facies are laterally extensive sheet sandstones with thin mudrock layers, channel complexes (isolated or amalgamated) and channel-levee complexes (often with poor reservoir communication). Reservoirs are often complicated by steep dips close to salt domes and the presence of potential fluid conduits due to faults or fractures. Borehole images aid in determining the character of the sediments, as well as improve net sand calculations, and illuminate the geology in the near wellbore region both in structure and depositional environment, and to provide valuable geomechanics information for the determination of the stress vector.

A well was recently drilled through one of these deep water sediment sequences in the Gulf of Mexico with an oil-based mud (OBM) system. An extensive acquisition program included a series of logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline images. In addition to the current LWD lower resolution borehole imaging tools, a new LWD dual physics OBM imager was deployed for the first time in this field. Five different types of physics were acquired, including lower-resolution images from nuclear measurements (gamma ray, density and photoelectric) and the high-resolution images from dualphysics OBM imager (DPOI) which is based on resistivity and ultrasonic measurements. Wireline high-resolution OBM resistivity images were also acquired. This paper shows a comparison of images collected with the new DPOI versus traditional LWD images and high-resolution wireline resistivity images.

Comparisons of the types of features observed from the various imaging tools were made, showing how the differences in physics, resolution and time of logging affects the images, as well as the impact these factors can have on subsequent interpretations. Four main categories of features are included in comparisons between the tools: sand-rich sections, consistently dipping mudrocks, chaotic zones and fractures/faults. The different images allow fuller interpretation of the gross sequence. In general, the higher the resolution, the more detailed and confident the interpretation is, particularly where the hole conditions are good. In degraded borehole sections, the LWD acquisition was beneficial for obtaining images as early as possible, when damage was at a minimum. The impact of the differences in the physics depends on the properties and contrasts being imaged. This is observed with fractures - both conductive and resistive examples can be seen on both LWD and wireline images. The ultrasonic images are complementary with both low and high amplitude fractures seen, providing more confidence in the fracture interpretation.