Comprehensive Evaluation of NMR Characteristics of Complex Volcanic Reservoirs with Different Types of Rock lithology

Sun, Junchang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Zhang, Shijie (Xinjiang Oilfield Company, PetroChina) | Wang, Jieming (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Guo, Hekun (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Li, Chun (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Xu, Hongcheng (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Zhu, Sinan (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina) | Zhao, Kai (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina)



Compared with sandstones and carbonates, volcanic reservoirs are much more complex and heterogeneous due to the special eruption diagenesis mechanism, many types of rock lithology, various mineral compositions and a broad wide of pore sizes according to previous studies. Consequently, accurate characterization of volcanic reservoirs using the powerful nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging requires a comprehensive laboratory NMR investigation of volcanic rock because currently used NMR interpreted methods were only developed for sedimentary reservoirs.

To gain an in-depth understanding of NMR characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithology, a total of 108 low-permeability volcanic reservoir rock plugs from three large volcanic gas reservoirs named Xushen, Changling and Dixi, respectively, were prepared to perform NMR measurements and other related tests including CT scans, thin section petrography, mercury injection and mineral compositions analysis. The selected plugs comprise 9 types of lithology representing the main producing formation lithology of the three reservoirs. Specially, centrifuge tests were conducted with the maximum centrifugal forces up to 500 psi to explore the suitable capillary pressure for T2 cutoff determination.

Results indicate that, obviously different from sandstone and carbonate plugs, NMR porosity of volcanic plugs at fully brine-saturated state is strongly dependent on rock lithology. NMR porosities of trachyte, trachytic volcanic and granite porphyry are significantly less than the conventional ones measured by the Archimedes method, which means that, accurate identification of reservoir intervals lithology is a primary prerequisite before correct interpretations of NMR logging. Paramagnetic minerals mainly iron and manganese elements contained in volcanic reservoirs are the fundamental cause resulting in this abnormal phenomenon. The critical values of iron and manganese elements contents are approximately 2% and 0.06% by weight, respectively, above which the NMR porosity will be considerably less than the conventional one suggesting by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) tests on 14 representative plugs. Then, a new NMR porosity corrected formula was developed to improve interpreted quality of NMR logging. It was found that the suitable capillary pressure for determination of T2 cutoff of volcanic reservoirs is 400psi, 3 times larger than the commonly recommended standard (100psi) for sandstones. The calculated T2 cutoff ranges from 3 to 120ms and its average values is 50ms. T2 cutoff between different volcanic reservoirs and lithologies exhibits significant difference.

The laboratory NMR results were used to interpret NMR logging of the Xushen reservoir of Daqing oilfield in eastern China and aided in detailed reservoirs evaluation. The outcome of beneficial intervals selection and high productivity well completion based on the NMR logging interpretation is very encouraging. This study indicated that a comprehensive laboratory NMR tests is very essential to successful application of NMR logging for complex reservoirs such as volcanic reservoirs.