WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) schemes have been applied in Brazilian carbonate reservoirs aiming to minimize residual oil saturation and gas flaring by recycling CO2 naturally being produced alongside hydrocarbon gas. However, applying WAG injection in highly reactive and heterogeneous carbonate rocks can potentially create severe scaling problems. This work develops a reactive transport simulation-based workflow to evaluate the impact of key WAG design parameters on oil recovery, scale deposition risk and CO2 storage to support multi-objective decision-making.
Compositional simulations of WAG scenarios were performed as part of a sensitivity study followed by statistical analysis in order to quantify to what extent the outcomes of interest are sensitive to variations on four WAG design parameters: WAG ratio, CO2 concentration in the injection gas stream, injection rate and solvent slug-size. We established an Equation-of-State (EoS) using PVT data, a representative geochemical model and well constrains designed to control production of injected fluids. Scale risk was assessed by calcite changes around the wells, precipitation in well tubing and surface facilities, and water breakthrough.
Results of this study showed that values of calcite rate constant (
Ultimately, we demonstrate the importance of integrating multiphase miscible displacement with geochemical reactions while modeling complex CO2-EOR in carbonate reservoirs and address how key design parameters impact our desired outcomes, knowledge that promotes a more robust decision-making framework.