Use of High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy in Building 3D Reservoir Geological Model - A Case Study from Kuwait

Neog, Nilotpaul (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Chakraborty, Subrata Kumar (Schlumberger Oilfield Eastern Limited) | Rao, N.S. (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Perrin, Christian (Schlumberger Oilfield Eastern Limited) | Pattnaik, C. (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Al-Ashwak, Samar (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Al-Mayyas, Rawan Hussain (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Al-Darm, Areej (Kuwait Oil Co.) | Al-Ateeqi, Khalid (Kuwait Oil Co.)

OnePetro 

Abstract


A number of structures are producing hydrocarbons in commercial quantity from the carbonate reservoirs of Middle Marrat Formation in the Northern part of the State of Kuwait. Seismic resolution of these deep carbonate reservoirs of Toarcian age is strongly affected by multiples from overlying Gotnia-Hith salt-anhydrite layers impacting true understanding of the internal depositional architecture from seismic data making it difficult to make realistic geological models.
An extensive coring campaign adopted over a period of time for improving the understanding of depositional settings and diagenetic processes in these reservoirs and subsequent studies helped in developing a correlation based on sequence stratigraphic principles. In the Middle Marrat Formation seven cycles with sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces were identified. The best reservoir facies are located in High Stand Tract, corresponding to the progradation of the carbonate platform in the form of clinoforms sloping towards the basin.
3D geological model was built with a framework base on this correlation capturing the higher order sequences with the prograding and aggrading carbonate shelf. Sedimentary facies were identified from electrologs with complete calibration from core description and ECS calibrated ELAN processing results. Gross depositional environment maps were prepared to guide the distribution of primary sedimentary facies within the model for different depositional environments like Slope/Basin, Outer Shelf, Inner Shelf, Shoreface, Barrier/ Shoal, Backbarrier/ Backshore, Lagoon, Tidal Flat, and Sabkha using templates developed for different sequence boundaries.
These carbonates are characterized by seepage reflux dolomitization process and burrows giving rise to enhanced porosity and higher productive layers. This diagenetic imprint was modeled on the primary facies in shoreface and inner shelf areas. This facies model was used to distribute other reservoir properties like porosity, permeability and water saturation using different techniques. The developed model was further calibrated with isotope geochemistry studies and was also validated from comparison with exposed and well studied geological analogue examples. This model showed better predictive capability for wells drilled subsequently.
In this carbonate reservoir, a sequence stratigraphic framework holds the key for distributing the reservoir facies within a 3D geological model in a realistic manner giving better predictability of reservoir properties and facies thereby reducing the field development uncertainty.