Ulitski, Vladimir (Petersburg State Transport University Emperor Alexander I) | Gorodnova, Elena (Petersburg State Transport University Emperor Alexander I) | Suvorova, Ekaterina (Petersburg State Transport University Emperor Alexander I)
It is common knowledge that the Northern Sea Route is the main traffic artery in the Arctic that integrates European and Far Eastern seaports into a single transport network. Russian legislation defines the Northern Sea Route as "historically created national Russian unified transport communication in the Arctic" which serves for transportation cargoes from Netherlands to Japan. One of indicators of the Arctic navigation level of development is shipping capacity determined by availability of icebreakers and ice-class vessels, intensive infrastructure of productive capacity, uplift and technological railroad, inventory space for open and close type freights.
1 Problems in Development of Territories Represented by Seasonally Frozen and Permafrost Soils
At present, the Arctic ports are the weak point in the Northern Sea Route to supply transportation for icebreakers and ice-class vessels (Minin 2014). To improve this situation and to ensure navigation security in the ports and on approaches to them there is a necessity of the seaport and transportation (railways and airports) infrastructure formation.
The most important of the Northern Sea Route development prospect today is the Arctic offshore fields development and powerful port infrastructure formation which is necessary for chartering, storage and shipment of hydrocarbon to various European and Asian countries.
In geological-engineering terms, these regions of Russia are represented by seasonally frozen and permafrost soils. Permafrost soil spreads over the most of Siberia and the Arctic coast. The area is about 11 million square km. These specific in the global construction practice soil conditions impose a number of requirements being taken into account in research, design, work management, as well as in subsequent maintenance of building structures considering the ability of soil thawing.
In permafrost soil areas there are various permafrost and frozen-soil conditions (Wojtkowski 1963). One of this article authors has worked in permafrost soil regions for a long time, as well as in areas of deep seasonal freezing and permafrost lenses presence. In general, considering deformation nature frozen soil can be divided into the following categories.