Static and Dynamic Elastic Moduli of Bakken Formation

He, Jun (University of North Dakota) | Ling, Kegang (University of North Dakota) | Wu, Xingru (The University of Oklahoma) | Pei, Peng (University of North Dakota) | Pu, Hui (University of North Dakota)

OnePetro 

Abstract

In recent years, the exploration and production of oil and gas from Bakken formation in Williston Basin have proceeded quickly due to the application of multi-stage fracturing technology in horizontal wells. Knowledge of the rock elastic moduli is important for the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Although static moduli obtained by tri-axial compression test are accurate, the procedures are cost expensive and time consuming. Therefore, developing correlation to predict static moduli from dynamic moduli, which is calculated from sonic wave velocities, is meaningful in cutting cost and it makes the unconventional oil and gas exploration and production more efficient.

Literature review indicates such a correlation is not available for Bakken formation. This may be attributed to the extremely low success rate in Bakken core sample preparation and not enough published data to develop correlation to relate dynamic moduli to static moduli. This study measures and compares the moduli obtained from sonic wave velocity tests with deformation tests (tri-axial compression tests) for the samples taken from Bakken formation of Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA. The results show that the dynamic moduli of Bakken samples are considerably different from the static moduli measured by tri-axial compression tests. Correlations are developed based on the static and dynamic moduli of 117 Bakken core samples. The cores used in this study were taken from the core areas of Bakken formation in Williston Basin. Therefore, they are representatives of the Bakken reservoir rock. These correlations can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of Bakken formation elastic moduli estimated from the seismic and/or well log data and adjust to static moduli at a lower cost comparing with conducting static tests. The correlations are crucial to understand the rock geomechanical properties and forecast reservoir performance when no core sample is available for direct measurement of static moduli.