Successful Steamflood Pilot in 1st Eocene Carbonate Reservoir of Wafra, PZ Mitigates Key Technical Uncertainties

Brown, Joel (Chevron Corp) | Kumar, Raushan (Chevron Corp) | Barge, David Lee (Chevron Corp) | Lolley, Christopher (Chevron Corp) | Lwin, Al (Chevron Corp) | Al-Ghamdi, Saleh (Chevron Corp) | Bartlema, Ruurd (Chevron Corp) | Littlefield, Brian (Chevron Corp)



The 1st Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in Wafra field in the Partitioned Zone (PZ) between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. A large-scale steamflood pilot has been successfully completed in the 1st Eocene reservoir. The large-scale pilot (LSP) was the first multipattern steamflood in a carbonate reservoir in the Middle East, and consisted of sixteen 2.5-acre inverted 5-spot patterns with associated steamflood and production facilities. The primary objective of the LSP was to identify and mitigate technical and economic risks and uncertainties in carbonate steamflooding to assist in the broader Wafra full-field steamflood development (FFSFD) decisions. The key technical uncertainties related to the steamflooding in 1st Eocene reservoir were identified, categorized, and prioritized. These were then used as a basis to create surveillance and subsurface response plans. Success measures were developed to assess success in steamflooding this carbonate reservoir. These success measures were derived from the key metrics that were prerequisites for the FFSFD. The pilot met all the success measures, thereby mitigating the key technical uncertainties, and opened the path to FFSFD. This paper describes the elements of pilot planning and the results achieved during pilot execution. The emphasis, specifically, is on the achievements against the success measures set for the project; the insights into the pilot behavior from detailed analysis of production, pressure, and temperature data; and the progress made in identifying and mitigating key uncertainties in carbonate steamflooding.