Akselsen, Odd M. (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry) | Lange, Hans I. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)) | Ren, Xiaobo (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry) | Nyhus, Bård (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry)
For steel structures to be installed in the Arctic region, the risk of brittle fracture represents a primary concern due to the ductile to brittle usually transition taking place at sub-zero temperatures. Therefore, the present investigation addressed the heat affected zone and weld metal toughness of two extra low carbon steels of 420 MPa yield strength grade, supplied in 20 and 50 mm thickness. The testing included tensile, Charpy V and CTOD. The results obtained showed that the Charpy V toughness was relatively high at -600C, but that some low values may occur for the fusion line position. The fracture toughness at -600C, based on SENB05 (a/t=0.5) geometry, appeared to be low for both weld metal and fusion line positions. More specific measures may be taken into account in welding procedure qualification of the current steels, such as using lower crack length (e.g., a/t=0.2), tension instead of bending (SENT testing) or a full engineering critical assessment.
The oil and gas industry has been gradually moving towards the north. In Norwegian waters, the Goliat field was recently set in production by ENI. The design temperature for this field was -200C, which is somewhat lower than previously experienced, and below the lowest design temperature in the NORSOK standard (2014), which is currently -140C. Not far from the Goliat, Johan Castberg may be the next field of exploration, and is now under evaluation by Statoil. When going further north and east, the ice edge is approached, and the design temperature may fall down to -300C, or even below. This represents huge challenges to the materials which are to be used. Normally, e.g. structural steels and pipelines may easily satisfy toughness requirements at such low temperature. However, welding tends to be very harmful to low temperature fracture toughness. Recent results have demonstrated that the toughness may be on the borderline for both the heat affected zone and the weld metal (e.g., Akselsen et al, 2015; Akselsen & Østby, 2014; Akselsen et al, 2012; Akselsen et al, 2011), indicating that required robust solutions are not yet available for the most challenging part of the Arctic region, unless some constraint loss corrections are applicable.