Plugging and Abandonment of Oil and Gas Wells: A Geomechanics Perspective

Davison, J. M. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V.) | Salehabadi, M. (Shell UK Exploration & Production) | De Gennaro, S. (Shell UK Exploration & Production) | Wilkinson, D. (Shell UK Exploration & Production) | Hogg, H. (Shell UK Exploration & Production) | Hunter, C. (Shell UK Exploration & Production) | Schutjens, P. (Shell Global Solutions International B.V.)

OnePetro 

ABSTRACT: At the end of field life, wells require permanent plugging and abandonment (P&A) as part of decommissioning activities. Some UK fields developed in the 1970’s are reaching their end of field life, with UK industry estimates predicting well P&A costs over the next 30-40 years of 24 billion dollars. As well as the high financial cost, there is a significant HSSE exposure to ensure safe and reliable P&A such that no escape of hydrocarbons is possible to the near surface environment.

This paper discusses the role Geomechanics has to play in potentially reducing well P&A costs, but also ensuring integrity of the wells and formations over long time scales. Recent experience in the UK North Sea has highlighted the requirement for detailed geomechanical knowledge of the field. We will focus on three key areas for geomechanical analysis. Firstly, we discuss reservoir pressure re-charge and in-situ stress response, from simple pressure-depth plots to more complex 3-D numerical modelling of the stress changes in reservoirs and surrounding formations. An added level of complexity compared to ‘conventional’ geomechanical modelling is the ability to forward predict the reservoir pressure recharge over hundreds of years and the commensurate response of the in-situ stresses. Secondly, as well as the modelling of stress changes over time, Geomechanics has a key role to play in determining the opportunity of using shale creep deformation to create annular barriers in the place of cement. Lastly, in some cases the preferred P&A design for a well is not possible due to well access issues which then requires cross-flow analysis linked with the geomechanical response of permeable formations. This approach is required for containment risk assessment and application of ‘as low as reasonably practicable’ (ALARP) assessments for well and formation integrity. Each of these subjects will be covered with field examples from the UK North Sea which demonstrate the Geomechanical workflows employed and the impact these have had on the business.