Hierarchical Geomodeling Approach for Ultra High Permeability Reservoir

Xu, Wei (CNOOC Research Institute Co., Ltd.) | Chen, Kaiyuan (Beijing Key Laboratory of Unconventional Natural Gas Geological Evalution and Development Engineeing, China University of Geosciences Beijing) | Fang, Lei (Beijing Key Laboratory of Unconventional Natural Gas Geological Evalution and Development Engineeing, China University of Geosciences Beijing) | Zhang, Yingchun (CNOOC Research Institute Co., Ltd.) | Jing, Zhiyi (CNOOC Research Institute Co., Ltd.) | Liu, Jun (CNOOC Research Institute Co., Ltd.) | Zou, Jingyun (CNOOC Research Institute Co., Ltd.)


The lacustrine delta sandbody deposited in the north of Albert Basin is unconsolidated due to the shallow burial depth, which leads to an ultra-high permeability (up to 20 D) with large variation and poor diagenesis. Log derived permeability differs greatly with DST results. Thus, permeability simulation is challenging in 3D geomodeling. A hierarchical geomodeling approach is presented to bridge the gap among the ultra-high permeability log, model and DST results. The ultimate permeability model successfully matched the logging data and DST results into the geological model.

Based on the study of sedimentary microfacies, the new method identifies different discrete rocktypes (DRT) according to the analyis of core, thin section and conventional and special core analysis (e.g., capillary pressure). In this procedure, pore throat radius, flow zone index (FZI) and other parameters are taken into account to identify the DRT. Then, hierarchical modeling approach is utilized in the geomodeling. Firstly, the sedimentary microfacies model is established within the stratigraphic framework. Secondly, the spatial distribution model of DRT is established under the control of sedimentary microfacies. Thirdly, the permeability distribution is simulated according to the different pore-permeability relation functions derived from each DRT. Finally, the permeability model is compared with the logging and testing results.

Winland equation was improved based on the capillary pressure (Pc) data of special core analysis. It is found that the highest correlation between pore throat radius and reservoir properties was reached when mercury injection was 35%. The corresponding formula of R35 is selected to calculate the radius of reservoir pore throat. Reservoirs are divided into four discrete rock types according to parameters such as pore throat radius and flow zone index. Each rock type has its respective lithology, thin section feature and pore-permeability relationship. The ultra-high permeability obtained by DST test reaches up to 20 D, which belongs to the first class (DRT1) quality reservoir. It is located in the center of the delta channel with high degree of sorting and roundness. DRT4 is mainly located in the bank of the channels. It has a much higher shale content and the permeability is generally less than 50 mD. Through three-dimensional geological model, sedimentary facies, rock types and pore-permeability model are coupled hierarchically. Different pore-permeability relationships are given to different DRTs. After reconstructing the permeability model, the simulation results are highly matched with the log and DST test results.

This hierarchical geomodeling approach can effectively solve the simulation problem in the ultra-high permeability reservoir. It realizes a quantitative characterization for the complex reservoir heterogeneity. The method presented can be applied to clastic reservoir. It also plays a significant positive role in carbonate reservoir characterization.