The Numerical Analysis of Response and Stability of Stone Masonry Bridges in Azan (Aizanoi) Antique City in Kütahya Province of Turkey

Tomiyama, J. (University of the Ryukyus) | Aydan, Ö. (University of the Ryukyus) | Kumsar, H. (Pamukkale University) | Özer, E. (Pamukkale University)

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ABSTRACT: Azan (Aizanoi) antique city was first established by Phrygians and later become a part of Roman Empire. This city was the first city in the world to introduce the flood protection measures by constructing dams and embankment walls. Two of the four stone masonry bridges are remaining and they are still used today. The authors have performed some site investigations and surveying of these remaining stone bridges. In this study, the response and stability of stone bridges are investigated using finite element method under various loading conditions and the results of the investigations and analyses are presented and discussed. 1 INTRODUCTION The antique city called Azan in Phrygian or Aizanoi in ancient Greek, located in Kütahya Province of Turkey, was established by Phrygians and become a part of Roman Empire and then become of a part of Seljuk, later Ottoman Empire and finally Modern Turkey (Fig. 1). One can find traces of various civilizations in this city. This city was the first to introduce the fundamentals of the modern stock exchange and modern civil engineering principles. This city was also the first city in the world to introduce the flood protection measures by constructing dams and embankment walls. In other words, it is the city of the birth of the hydraulic engineering of modern civil engineering. The city had four stone masonry bridges made of marble. The bridges have been performed very well even under very heavy trucks of modern times. However, the traffic has been recently restricted to light vehicles such as cars and they are still in use. The authors have performed some site investigations and surveying on two remaining stone bridges constructed during the Roman period. In this study, the response and stability of stone bridge denoted as Bridge-L are investigated using finite element method under various loading conditions in order to find out why these stone bridges performed very well so far since their construction about 1850 years ago. 2 DESCRIPTION OF BRIDGES There were four stone masonry bridges over Koca (Bedir) Çay in Turkish, which was called Penkalas in Roman period. However, it is very likely that the river could have been called with a different name by Phrygians as western historical sources generally quote ancient Greek or Roman names rather than the original names. Two of these four bridges are remaining and they are still being used today (Fig. 2). Two of the bridges are missing while the building stones of one of the missing bridges were recently retrieved during the rehabilitation works. The bridges were made of white marbles presumed to be extracted from nearby ancient quarries at Göynükören, which is about 12 km to the east.

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