Water for hydraulic fracturing


Water is the most commonly used fluid in hydraulic fracturing, and it is used in large quantities. Chemicals are added to the water to aid in fracturing and prevent damage to the reservoir, and normally less than 1 percent of the fluid contents are chemical compounds. Because fracturing involves a large amount of water, innovations to reuse/recycle and safely dispose of the water are an important part of environmental stewardship. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping fluid into a wellbore at an injection rate too high for the formation to accept without breaking.[1] During injection, the formation's resistance to flow increases, and the pressure in the wellbore increases to a value called the break-down pressure, which is the sum of the in-situ compressive stress and thestrength of the formation.

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