Cold heavy oil production with sand - PetroWiki

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Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) involves the deliberate initiation of sand influx during the completion procedure, maintenance of sand influx during the productive life of the well, and implementation of methods to separate the sand from the oil for disposal. No sand exclusion devices (screens, liners, gravel packs, etc.) are used. The sand is produced along with oil, water, and gas and separated from the oil before upgrading to a synthetic crude. To date, deliberate massive sand influx has been used only in unconsolidated sandstone (UCSS) reservoirs (φ 30%) containing viscous oil (μ 500 cp). It has been used almost exclusively in the Canadian heavy-oil belt and in shallow ( 800 m), low-production-rate wells (up to 100 to 125 m3/d).