Sampling and analysis of produced water - PetroWiki

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The composition of subsurface water commonly changes vertically and laterally in the same aquifer. Changes may be brought about by the intrusion of other waters and by discharge from and recharge to the aquifer. As a reservoir is produced, the compositions typically change with time; therefore, it is difficult, but important, to obtain a representative sample of a given subsurface body of water. Any one sample is a very small part of the total mass, which may vary widely in composition; therefore, it is generally necessary to obtain and analyze many samples. Also, the samples themselves may change with time as gases evolve from solution or may precipitate solids when coming to ambient conditions.