The drilling conditions described above have led to the following practices, which are reasonably uniform, in the geothermal drilling industry. Bits Because of the hard, fractured formations, roller-cone bits with tungsten-carbide inserts are almost universally used for geothermal drilling. The abrasive rocks mean that bit life is usually low (50 to 100 m), but many bits are also pulled because of bearing failures caused by rough drilling and high temperature. Much research and development in hard-rock PDC bits is under way,  so it is possible that these bits will come into wider use in geothermal drilling. Tubulars Because of the low-value fluid (steam or hot water), geothermal wells must produce large fluid volumes and so tend to be larger diameter than oil/gas wells; typical geothermal production intervals are 219 to 340 mm in diameter.