JPT Advances in 4D Seismic and Geophysical Monitoring of Deepwater Fields 

Integrated surveillance is critical for understanding reservoir dynamics and improving field management. A key component of the surveillance is areal monitoring of subsurface changes by use of time-lapse geophysical surveys such as 4D seismic. The complete paper reviews the advances in these technologies with recent examples from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and deepwater Brazil. Data-Quality Improvement 4D seismic has played a pivotal role in monitoring offshore fields for some time. However, until recently, its application in the GOM had been limited, largely because the effects of the Loop Current and infrastructures make it difficult to repeat the feathering of streamers used in conventional 4D-seismic acquisition.

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