During this period, a series of emerging innovations would find commercial success and reshape the upstream industry into the 21st century.Source: SPE. Contrary to popular imagination, which favors John Wayne stereotypes heroically rescuing the oil industry with wrench and hammer, the oilfield is a place of exquisite engineering, the match of anything on Earth, a marvel of innovation at the biggest and smallest scales. The office-block sized blowout preventers on the ocean floor or the minute geopositioning electronics inside a logging while drilling (LWD) tool both are designed to operate perfectly within exacting environmental specifications. Almost every aspect of upstream exploitation is the result of exhaustively leveraging the glorious value chain of math, science, and engineering. Along this trajectory, failure is met more often than success, as ideas and developments are tried out and eventually fine-tuned until something begins to work reliably.