The Caspian Sea is the world’s largest land-locked inland water body. It is rich with hydrocarbon and biological resources. Because of its geographical location, natural climatic and hydrological conditions, the Caspian Sea can be considered a unique center for biodiversity conservation. At present, the Caspian Sea ecosystem is undergoing significant changes. The most significant stressors are global climate change, warming up and drying of the Caspian region, sea level drop, increasing offshore oil and gas activities and marine navigation. It is imperative that actions are taken now to prevent irreversible impacts on the biodiversity of Caspian Sea. All five Caspian littoral states have taken firm steps towards biodiversity conservation through summits and bilateral arrangements.